Table 3

Clinical characteristics of study population by AF prevalence and sex

MenWomen
AF
(n=121)
Without AF (n=1778)P valueAF
(n=44)
Without AF
(n=1763)
P value
Height, cm180.4±6.7178.8±6.5<0.01168.7±7.0165.3±5.9<0.001
Weight, kg94.0±15.788.3±13.6<0.00179.6±16.572.8±13.4<0.01
BMI28.9±4.927.6±3.9<0.0127.9±5.626.6±4.70.07
Obesity (BMI ≥30)52 (43.0)405 (22.8)<0.00117 (38.6)365 (20.7)<0.01
Waist circumference, cm103.4±12.999.3±11.00.00193.3±12.787.7±12.4<0.01
Hip circumference, cm104.0±9.6101.5±6.8<0.01105.5±9.6102.1±9.20.01
Waist to hip ratio0.99±0.080.97±0.070.020.88±0.070.85±0.080.04
Body surface area, m2 2.16±0.192.09±0.18<0.0011.92±0.221.82±0.18<0.01
Hypertension101 (83.5)1152 (64.8)<0.00137 (84.1)1007 (57.2)<0.001
Myocardial infarction18 (14.9)123 (6.9)0.0010 (0)17 (1.0)0.51
Coronary heart disease28 (23.1)191 (10.7)<0.0010 (0)44 (2.5)0.29
Heart failure13 (10.7)30 (1.7)<0.0013 (6.8)14 (0.8)<0.001
Stroke/TIA9 (7.4)86 (4.8)0.203 (6.8)42 (2.4)0.06
Diabetes mellitus13 (10.7)207 (11.6)0.764 (9.1)93 (5.3)0.27
Reduced eGFR11 (9.1)54 (3.1)<0.0015 (11.4)73 (4.2)0.02
Obstructive sleep apnoea15 (12.4)156 (8.8)0.183 (6.8)54 (3.1)0.16
No comorbidity*15 (12.4)455 (25.6)0.0016 (13.6)594 (33.7)<0.01
Hospitalisation last 12 months28 (23.1)201 (11.3)<0.00116 (36.4)204 (11.6)<0.001
Current daily smoking10 (8.3)249 (14.1)0.088 (18.2)265 (15.2)0.58
Familial AF†31 (25.6)272 (15.3)<0.0125 (56.8)408 (23.1)<0.001
Higher education‡61 (50.4)889 (50.2)0.9718 (40.9)745 (42.3)0.85
Physical activity level
 Inactive30 (25.6)390 (22.3)0.4011 (25.6)259 (15.1)0.06
 Low/medium55 (47.0)960 (54.9)0.1027 (62.8)1129 (65.9)0.67
 High32 (27.4)399 (22.8)0.265 (11.6)325 (19.0)0.22
Heart rate§56±861±10<0.00159±865±10<0.01
PQ interval¶185±29175±27<0.01182±44165±250.04
QRS duration¶105±2298±14<0.0190±1488±100.28
  • Categorical variables are reported as counts with percentages in parentheses. Continuous variables are reported as mean±SD. P values indicate difference between AF and non-AF (within each sex).

  • *No comorbidity: neither hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart  failure, stroke, diabetes, reduced eGFR, obstructive sleep apnoea nor obesity.

  • †Familial AF: self-report of at least one  first-degree relative with known AF.

  • ‡Higher education: ≥12 years of formal education.

  • §Heart rate: beats per minute in 12-lead ECG.

  • ¶PQ interval and QRS duration are reported in ms. For heart rate, PQ interval and QRS duration, all subjects with AF in study ECG were excluded (n=60).

  • AF, atrial fibrillation; BMI, body mass index, kg/m2; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; TIA, transient ischaemic attack.