Table 1

The population attributable risk estimation methods employed for the individual exposures of interest in the ComPARe project

Formula for PAR EstimationExposure
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  • Tobacco (secondhand smoke)

  • UVR risk behaviours

  • Disinfection by-products

  • Low vitamin D

  • Low dietary calcium intake

  • Helicobacter pylori

  • Hepatitis B

  • Hepatitis C

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  • Human papillomavirus

  • Epstein–Barr virus

  • Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1

  • Human herpes virus 8

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  • Tobacco (active exposure)

  • Oral contraceptives

  • Hormone replacement therapy

  • Overweight/obesity

  • Insufficient fruit and vegetable intake

  • Red meat/processed meat intake

  • High alcohol intake

  • Insufficient dietary fibre intake

  • Physical activity/inactivity

Individualised Methods
  • Overall UV exposure

  • Air pollution

  • Radon

  • Insufficient fruit and vegetable intake

  • Red meat/processed meat intake

  • Insufficient fibre intake

  • Alcohol consumption

  • ERR, excess relative risk; i, exposure level; k, levels of exposure; PAR, population attributable risk; Pc, proportion of cases at the ith level of exposure; Pe, prevalence of exposure in the population; RR, relative risk; UV, ultraviolet; UVR, ultraviolet radiation.