Table 4

Risk factors associated with atrial fibrillation (AF)

Univariate OR
(95% CI)
P valueMultivariate OR
(95% CI)
P value
Male sex2.73 (1.92 to 3.87)<0.0011.00 (0.59 to 1.68)0.99
Height per 10cm 1.90 (1.59 to 2.28) <0.001 1.67 (1.26 to 2.22) <0.001
Weight per 10kg 1.42 (1.29 to 1.55) <0.001 1.15 (1.01 to 1.30) 0.03
Hypertension* 3.27 (2.15 to 4.97) <0.001 2.49 (1.61 to 3.86) <0.001
Heart failure 8.53 (4.71 to 15.48) <0.001 3.51 (1.71 to 7.24) 0.001
Familial AF† 2.16 (1.55 to 3.02) <0.001 2.32 (1.63 to 3.31) <0.001
Reduced eGFR 2.87 (1.66 to 4.95) <0.001 2.56 (1.42 to 4.60) <0.01
Coronary heart disease2.88 (1.88 to 4.41)<0.0011.56 (0.95 to 2.57)0.08
History of stroke/TIA2.09 (1.13 to 3.86)0.021.43 (0.74 to 2.78)0.29
OSA1.94 (1.17 to 3.23)0.011.11 (0.63 to 1.97)0.71
Physical activity (low/normal as ref.)‡
 Inactive1.61 (1.10 to 2.37)0.021.38 (0.92 to 2.07)0.12
 High level1.30 (0.88 to 1.94)0.191.20 (0.80 to 1.81)0.38
Diabetes1.24 (0.74 to 2.08)0.41
Daily smoking0.72 (0.44 to 1.19)0.20
High alcohol consumption§0.81 (0.45 to 2.78)0.81
  • Variables with p<0.20 in univariate logistic regression analysis are included in the multivariate analysis (a complete analysis of all candidate variables are included in online supplementary table 2).

  • Bold font indicates a significant association in multivariate analysis.

  • *Hypertension: mean systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, or mean diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or current use of any antihypertensive medication.

  • †Familial AF: self-report of at least one  first-degree  relative with known AF.

  • ‡Physical activity (PA) level: Inactive and high level of PA compared with low/medium PA (combined to one group) as the reference group.

  • §High alcohol consumption: >14  standard  drinks/week (both sexes).

  • eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; OSA, obstructive sleep apnoea; TIA, transient ischaemic attack.