Table 1

Baseline characteristics of subjects included in the study

CharacteristicsTotal
(n=1043)
Exposure to ETs in the last 30 daysP value
Total exposed
(n=281)
Unexposed
(n=762)
Occasionally exposed
(≤1 ET/30  days) (n=205)
Frequently exposed
(≥2–3  ETs/week in the last 30  days) (n=76)
Unexposed versus total exposedUnexposed versus occasionally exposedUnexposed versus frequently exposed
Sociodemographic and anthropometric parameters
 Age (years) (mean±SD)46.2±14.345.5±14.146.5±14.445.8±14.444.8±13.10.30.50.3
 Female sex (n (%))414 (39.7)107 (38.1)307 (40.3)77 (37.6)30 (39.5)0.50.50.9
 BMI (mean±SD)25.2±4.425.4±4.125.2±4.525.1±3.826.3±4.70.10.50.02*
 EPICES score (mean±SD)24.6±21.823.8±21.224.9±22.022.6±20.326.8±23.20.50.20.6
  Social deprivation (n (%))
  (EPICES score ≥30)
358 (34.3)87 (31.0)271 (35.6)58 (28.3)29 (38.2)0.40.050.7
 Place of birth
  France (n (%))569 (54.6)142 (50.5)427 (56.0)113 (55.1)29 (38.2)0.21.00.003†
  Overseas France (n (%))37 (3.5)14 (5.0)23 (3.0) 8 (3.9) 4 (5.3)0.10.50.04
  Africa (n (%))245 (23.5)67 (23.8)67 (23.8)48 (23.4)19 (25.0)0.80.90.7
  Asia (n (%))45 (4.3)13 (4.6)32 (4.2) 7 (3.4) 6 (7.9)0.70.60.2
  Europe excluding France (n (%))56 (5.4)18 (6.4)38 (5.0) 9 (4.4) 9 (11.8)0.30.80.03*
Comorbidities
 Hypertension (n (%))118 (11.3)31 (11.0)87 (11.4)19 (9.3)12 (15.8)0.90.40.3
 SBP (mm Hg) (mean±SD)127.7±15.0127.9±14.6127.6±15.2126.7±13.6130.9±16.70.6‡0.3‡0.01‡ §
 DBP (mm Hg) (mean±SD)76.0±9.275.9±9.276.2±9.275.6±8.977.8±10.10.6‡0.5‡0.03‡
 EGFR <90 mL/min (n (%))249 (23.9)53 (18.9)196 (25.7)37 (18.0)16 (21.1)0.02*0.02*0.4
 Swallowing difficulties (n (%))25 (2.5)7 (2.6)18 (2.4)5 (2.5)2 (2.7)0.91.00.7
 Stress score (mean±SD)4.7±3.15.3±3.34.5±3.04.9±3.26.2±3.30.002†0.28.0×10−5
 Depression score (mean±SD)1.8±2.92.3±3.11.6±2.7 1.9±2.7 3.6±4.30.009§0.10.005*
 Depression (n (%))
 (depression score ≥6)
95 (11.3)37 (16.6)58 (9.4) 19 (11.7) 18 (29.5)0.004§0.42.0×10−06
 Perceived health quality (mean±SD)7.2±1.77.0±1.77.2±1.67.1±1.56.6±2.00.10.50.02*
 GER symptoms (n (%))273 (26.8)88 (32.1)184 (24.9) 62 (31.3) 26 (34.2)0.02*0.070.08
 Sciatica (n (%))238 (23.6)64 (24.1)174 (23.4)43 (22.2)21 (29.2)0.80.70.3
 Osteoarticular pain (n (%))416 (40.7)118 (42.8)298 (39.9)83 (41.1)35 (47.3)0.40.80.2
 SCORE (mean±SD)1.35±1.51.36±1.51.35±1.51.45±1.31.03±1.00.70.30.3
Comedications
 Self-medication in the last 30 days (n (%))607 (58.2)270 (96.1)337 (44.2)201 (98)69 (90.8)2.2×10−162.0×10−161.0×10−14
 Total number of drug per day (mean±SD)0.51±1.180.47±1.070.52±1.210.49±1.100.42±1.010.70.80.6
 ≥5 drugs per day, defining polymedication (n (%))20 (1.9)3 (1.1)17 (2.2)2 (1.0)1 (1.3)0.30.41
 Antihypertensive drugs (n (%))96 (9.2)25 (8.9)71 (9.3)19 (9.3)7 (9.2)0.20.10.9
 Hypertensive subjects taking more than one antihypertensive drug (n (%))47 (39.8)12 (38.7)35 (40.2)7 (36.8)5 (41.6)0.80.91.0
 Diuretics, any indication (n (%))52 (5.0)17 (6.0)35 (4.6)10 (4.9)7 (9.2)0.40.90.1
 Corticosteroids (n (%))27 (2.6)13 (4.6)14 (1.8)8 (3.9)5 (6.6)0.01§0.10.02*
 Aspirin (n (%))124 (11.9)53 (18.9)71 (9.3)36 (17.6)17 (22.4)8.0×10−50.003†0.0005†
  • * p-value < 0.033, † p-value < 0.003, ‡ Adjusted for age and sex, § p-value < 0.017, ¶ p-value < 0.0003 (Bonferroni correction).

  • BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; EGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; ET, effervescent tablet; GER, gastro-oesophageal reflux; SCORE, Systemic Coronary Risk Estimation (calculated for subjects aged 40–65 years); SBP, systolic blood pressure.