Table 1

Trend of ARD-related articles during 1991–2016 in all and the top 11 countries by research area

CountryThree areas combinedLaboratory sciencesClinical researchPublic health
N*Rate (‰ per year)†AAPC (% per year)‡N*Proportion (%)§Rate (‰ per year)†AAPC (% per year)‡N*Proportion (%)§Rate (‰ per year)†AAPC (% per year)‡N*Proportion (%)§Rate (‰ per year)†AAPC (% per year)‡
All countries14 2841.0−1.8¶378226.50.6−1.1¶928065.01.3−0.1355424.90.8−5.7¶
Top 11 countries11 8521.1−2.0¶317926.80.7−0.9781766.01.40.2289324.40.9−4.7¶
USA52761.1−2.8¶159030.10.9−0.5346765.71.4−1.0¶130124.70.8−5.7¶
Italy15922.23.0¶44227.81.64.3¶94559.42.52.6¶44828.12.8−0.7
Japan13561.23.537727.80.75.9¶97471.81.74.3¶21315.71.3−3.0¶
UK12400.9−1.5¶32226.00.7−1.682266.31.30.431925.70.7−6.2¶
France9891.2−0.219719.90.5−0.164965.61.70.526827.11.3−3.3¶
Germany8560.8−2.8¶20423.80.4−2.7¶57567.21.1−1.7¶18421.50.9−8.9¶
Australia7451.4−0.314819.91.00.655975.02.20.214219.10.7−2.8¶
Canada5960.9−3.4¶13222.10.6−2.6¶33556.21.1−2.5¶23439.30.9−5.1¶
China3810.4−4.011429.90.2−5.3¶25767.50.7−3.57419.40.6−13.5¶
The Netherlands3550.9−2.6¶7420.80.6−2.7¶26474.41.2−3.1¶6418.00.5−2.4
Finland3552.9−5.8¶8122.81.9−3.0¶20858.63.1−3.3¶13738.64.2−9.4¶
  • ARD-related articles=articles with a theme of asbestos and asbestos-related diseases. Articles were defined as articles or reviews belonging to any of three research areas (see online supplementary file, table S1) in InCites (Clarivate Analytics).17

  • *n=Number of articles. Each article may be assigned to more than one research area and country. Duplicates were excluded when the three areas were combined.

  • †Rate (unit: ‰ per year) was calculated by first dividing the number of asbestos-related articles (area-specific and three areas combined) by the total number of scientific articles (area-specific and three areas combined) for each year, and then averaging the results over 26 years and multiplying by 1000 (thus, the unit is ‰ per year, which is a rate rather than a proportion).

  • ‡AAPC=average annual per cent change (unit: % per year). AAPC is a summary measure of the trend over the study period of 1991–2016, which was calculated as the average % change per year of the proportion of asbestos-related articles relative to all articles (area-specific and three areas combined) during the study period, weighted by the interval length of each annual per cent change, using joinpoint regression modelling.19

  • §Proportion (unit: %) was calculated by dividing the number of area-specific asbestos-related articles by the number of three areas combined asbestos-related articles over 26 years. Because the sum of the number of articles in the three research areas exceeded that of the three areas combined, the sum of the proportions of the three research areas may exceed 100%.

  • ¶P value <0.05.

  • ARD, asbestos-related diseases.