Table 4

Summary of studies reporting on the complications of lower limb cellulitis and associated factors in Africa

Surname of author, publication yearCountryRegionAreaStudy designData collectionRandom samplingMale (%)Mean age*Age range*Sample sizeComplication(s) of lower limb cellulitis (proportion)Factors associated with lower limb cellulitis (OR; 95% CI)
Saka, 201724 SSASSAUrban and ruralCohortProspectiveNo67.043.715–88562Necrotising fasciitis (6.1%); abscess (11.2%)Factors associated with necrotising fasciitis: delay of antibiotic treatment >10 days (9.82; 2.82 to 34.17); use of NSAIDs before consultation (2.02; 1.01 to 4.05); use of cataplasm before consultation (5.07; 2.49 to 10.32)
Factors associated with abscess formation: delay of antibiotic treatment >10 days (5.2; 2.22 to 12.05); use of NSAIDs before consultation (2.4; 1.40 to 4.04); use of cataplasm before consultation (2.5; 1.41 to 4.45)
Titou, 201727 MoroccoNorthUrbanCross-sectionalRetrospectiveNo7554.037–71152All complications (47.4%); bullae (27%); haemorrhagic lesions (20%); abscess (11.1%) and necrosis (5%)Taking antibiotics before hospitalisation (adjusted OR 5.15; 1.28 to 20.72): accelerated ESR on admission (adjusted OR 1.03; 1.00 to 1.06)
Njim, 201721 CameroonCentralUrbanCase 
control
ProspectiveNo34.452 > 1561Amputation (4.9%); necrosectomy (47.5%)NR
Mzabi, 201726 TunisiaNorthUrbanCross-sectionalRetrospectiveNo59.57365–94158All complication (8.9%); diabetic ketoacidosis (1.9%); necrotising fasciitis (5.1%); skin abscess and phlebitis (3.8%)NR
Pitché, 201523 SSASSAUrban and ruralCohortProspectiveNo67.043.715–88567Leg abscess (11.2%)Nicotine addiction (adjusted OR 3.75; 1.35 to 10.70); delay of antibiotic treatment >10 days (adjusted OR 4.6; 1.84 to 11.80)
  • *Age in years.

  • SSA: Togo, Senegal, Mali, Ivory Coast, Guinea Conakry, Burkina Faso, Cameroon.

  • ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; NR, not reported; NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; SSA, Sub-Saharan Africa.