Table 2

Association of overweight and obesity with sociodemographic characteristics by place of residence, BDHS 1999–2014

UrbanRural
Overweight vs healthyObese vs healthyOverweight vs healthyObese vs healthy
RR (95% CI)P valuesRR (95% CI)P valuesRR (95% CI)P valuesRR (95% CI)P values
 Age group
 15–24RefRefRefRef
 25–342.39 (2.11 to 2.70)0.0004.04 (3.34 to 4.87)0.002.09 (1.9 to 2.31)0.0003.23 (2.67 to 3.91)0.000
 35–443.14 (2.74 to 3.59)0.0006.77 (5.56 to 8.24)0.002.45 (2.2 to 2.73)0.0004.06 (3.30 to 4.99)0.000
 45+2.59 (2.15 to 3.12)0.0006.22 (4.88 to 7.92)0.002.47 (2.14 to 2.86)0.0003.69 (2.87 to 4.74)0.000
Educational level
 No educationRefRefRefRef
 Primary1.22 (1.06 to 1.41)0.0061.25 (1.01 to 1.54)0.031.11 (1.01 to 1.23)0.0231.22 (1.02 to 1.46)0.026
 Secondary1.41 (1.20 to 1.65)0.0001.61 (1.29 to 2.02)0.001.15 (1.03 to 1.30)0.0141.27 (1.04 to 1.55)0.019
 Higher1.61 (1.30 to 1.99)0.0001.42 (1.07 to 1.90)0.021.12 (0.92 to 1.36)0.2380.92 (0.67 to 1.27)0.649
Marital status
 Not marriedRef
 Married1.27 (1.04 to 1.56)0.0181.41 (1.07 to 1.86)0.01NANANANA
Wealth index
 PoorestRefRefRefRef
 Poorer1.15 (0.87 to 1.52)0.3170.99 (0.58 to 1.70)0.991.32 (1.17 to 1.49)0.0001.45 (1.11 to 1.90)0.006
 Middle1.65 (1.29 to 2.11)0.0001.63 (1.02 to 2.61)0.041.65 (1.46 to 1.87)0.0002.30 (1.78 to 2.97)0.000
 Richer1.88 (1.49 to 2.37)0.0002.55 (1.64 to 3.96)0.002.46 (2.16 to 2.8)0.0003.94 (3.05 to 5.10)0.000
 Richest2.83 (2.24 to 3.57)0.0005.58 (3.6 to 8.63)0.003.38 (2.9 to 3.94)0.0007.88 (5.93 to 10.46)0.000
Watch television (once a week)
 NoRefRefRefRef
 Yes1.28 (1.13 to 1.45)0.0001.72 (1.43 to 2.07)0.001.25 (1.15 to 1.35)0.0001.4 (1.22 to 1.62)0.000
Currently working
 NoRefRef
 Yes0.79 (0.71 to 0.89)0.0000.54 (0.46 to 0.64)0.00NANANANA
Number of household member
 1–2RefRef
 3–4NANANANA0.86 (0.72 to 1.02)0.0930.86 (0.64 to 1.16)0.353
 >5NANANANA0.71 (0.60 to 0.84)0.0000.61 (0.45 to 0.81)0.001
Contraceptive use
 Not usingRefRefRef
 Pills0.96 (0.85 to 1.09)0.6050.79 (0.67 to 0.94)0.011.06 (0.98 to 1.16)0.1300.83 (0.70 to 0.97)0.022
 Other1.07 (0.95 to 1.20)0.2371.04 (0.9 to 1.20)0.551.08 (0.99 to 1.18)0.0530.94 (0.82 to 1.09)0.459
Husband’s education
 No educationRefRefRefRef
 Primary1.11 (0.95 to 1.29)0.1641.12 (0.89 to 1.4)0.321.07 (0.97 to 1.18)0.1321.22 (1.01 to 1.47)0.037
 Secondary1.18 (1.01 to 1.37)0.0311.32 (1.05 to 1.65)0.021.2 (1.08 to 1.34)0.0011.51 (1.25 to 1.82)0.000
 Higher1.55 (1.28 to 1.88)0.0001.94 (1.49 to 2.52)0.001.46 (1.25 to 1.69)0.0001.98 (1.55 to 2.53)0.000
Survey year
 2004RefRefRefRef
 20071.23 (1.07 to 1.42)0.0031.35 (1.11 to 1.64)0.001.19 (1.06 to 1.35)0.0041.49 (1.15 to 1.93)0.002
 20111.43 (1.26 to 1.63)0.0001.68 (1.40 to 2.00)0.001.71 (1.54 to 1.90)0.0002.50 (2.00 to 3.13)0.000
 20142.07 (1.81 to 2.37)0.0003.23 (2.71 to 3.86)0.002.60 (2.33 to 2.89)0.0004.47 (3.59 to 5.57)0.000
  • BDHS, Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey; NA, not available; ref, reference; RR, risk ratio.