Table 4

Total number of PIMs* according to the subcategories of drugs taken at admission, newly started during hospitalisation and taken at discharge

Drug categoryAt admissionNewly started†At dischargeP values‡
Total510 (100.0)50 (100.0)219 (100.0)<0.001
Benzodiazepines141 (27.6)7 (14.0)65 (29.7)<0.001
Proton pump inhibitors§129 (25.3)23 (46.0)83 (37.9)<0.001
Hypnotics (non-benzodiazepines)38 (7.5)5 (10.0)21 (9.6)0.001
Antipsychotics36 (7.1)1 (2.0)15 (6.8)<0.001
NSAIDs28 (5.5)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)<0.001
Ticlopidine or dipyridamole18 (3.5)0 (0.0)1 (0.5)<0.001
Peripheral alpha-1 blocker18 (3.5)7 (14.0)12 (5.5)0.16
Digoxin16 (3.1)1 (2.0)2 (0.9)<0.001
H2-receptor antagonists for dementia14 (2.7)0 (0.0)3 (1.4)<0.001
Anticholinergics14 (2.7)0 (0.0)3 (1.4)0.002
First-generation antihistamines12 (2.4)1 (2.0)1 (0.5)0.004
Antidepressants11 (2.2)1 (2.0)4 (1.8)0.05
Verapamil or diltiazem for heart failure10 (2.0)1 (2.0)4 (1.8)0.06
Others25 (4.9)2 (4.0)4 (1.8)<0.001
  • Values are given as numbers (percentages).

  • *PIMs are defined based on the 2015 American Geriatric Society Beers Criteria.

  • †Defined as medications that were not prescribed at admission but were prescribed at discharge.

  • ‡Comparison of the number of PIMs at admission and at discharge using a two-tailed paired t-test.

  • §PPI therapy was judged to be potentially inappropriate if the patients had none of the following indications: (1) peptic ulcer disease; (2) GERD with or without oesophagitis; (3) Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy; (4) pathological hypersecretory conditions, such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome; (5) use of NSAIDs; (6) use of antiplatelet therapy and at least one risk factor (history of peptic ulcer or concomitant use of anticoagulants or corticosteroids).

  • GERD, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; PIM, potentially inappropriate medication; PPI, proton pump inhibitor.