Table 2

Characteristics of included studies

SourceAuthorStated study objectiveStudy designYear(s)SettingStudy population (n)Description of exposureOutcome(s) assessedReported findings
Hand searchedRavaja et al 28 (1) To examine whether life changes predict changes in the parameters of the metabolic syndrome in healthy young adults and
(2) To determine if locus of control is a moderator of the relation between life changes and metabolic function
Longitudinal prospective cohort1980–1986Finland (random sample of five university city areas)Healthy adolescents (n=671)
(12, 15, 18 age cohorts)
20 specific life events, four groups (change in work or education activities; personal illness; setting up family; change of residence)
Locus of control modifier (23-item Nowicki-Strickland, score 31–88)
Metabolic syndrome parameters, including measured body mass index (BMI)Males: residence change significantly associated with lower BMI (beta −0.06, p=0.024)
Females: setting up family significantly associated with higher BMI (beta 0.13, p<0.001), and modified by locus of control