Table 2

Differences in health-risk behaviours between groups according to diabetes diagnosis and its awareness

Without diabetes
n=12 750 (87.0%)
With diabetes
n=1905 (13.0%)
With diabetes, unaware
n=612 (32.1%)
With diabetes, aware
n=1293 (67.9%)
Current smoking
 Crude proportion, % (total n)19.6 (2500)20.8 (395)22.1 (134)20.2 (261)
 Unadjusted OR (95% CI)1.001.01 (0.88 to 1.17)1.000.87 (0.66 to 1.15)
 Model 11.001.24 (1.05 to 1.46)1.001.06 (0.77 to 1.48)
 Model 21.001.09 (0.92 to 1.30)1.001.04 (0.74 to 1.46)
Alcohol consumption*
 Crude proportion, % (total n)42.3 (5383)35.8 (680)39.3 (239)34.1 (441)
 Unadjusted OR (95% CI)1.000.75 (0.66 to 0.86)1.000.73 (0.58 to 0.92)
 Model 11.000.95 (0.82 to 1.10)1.000.96 (0.72 to 1.30)
 Model 21.000.95 (0.82 to 1.10)1.000.97 (0.71 to 1.32)
Physical inactivity†
 Crude proportion, % (total n)47.7 (5319)46.4 (737)50.0 (252)44.7 (485)
No physical activity
 Unadjusted OR (95% CI)1.001.37 (1.16 to 1.63)1.000.81 (0.57 to 1.16)
 Model 11.001.16 (0.97 to 1.39)1.000.67 (0.46 to 0.97)
 Model 21.001.02 (0.85 to 1.23)1.000.66 (0.45 to 0.99)
Insufficient physical activity
 Unadjusted OR (95% CI)1.001.07 (0.94 to 1.22)1.000.85 (0.65 to 1.1)
 Model 11.001.16 (1.02 to 1.32)1.000.91 (0.70 to 1.20)
 Model 21.001.09 (0.95 to 1.24)1.000.88 (0.66 to 1.16)
  • Model 1: adjusted using multiple logistic regression to control for age, gender and body mass index.      

  • Model 2: adjusted using multiple logistic regression to control for age, gender, body mass index, education level, employment status, insurance status, household income and self-health status.  

  • *Alcohol consumption was assessed according to the amount of drinking (Drinking more than two drinks for men and one drink for women).

  • †Physical inactivity was assessed with the questionnaire based on International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short form. No physical activity: not participating in any combination of walking, moderate-intensity or vigorous-intensity activities in past week. Insufficient physical activity: some activity is reported but not enough to meet categories 2 (moderate) or 3 (high) of physical activity levels in the IPAQ short form analysis algorithm. Category 2: 3 or more days of vigorous activity of at least 20 min/day, or 5 or more days of moderate-intensity activity and/or walking of at least 30 min/day, or 5 or more days of any combination of walking, moderate-intensity or vigorous-intensity activities achieving a minimum of at least 600 metabolic equivalent task-min/week.