No ADRs either at T1 or T2 (n = 978)Reported developing ADRs between T1 and T2 (n = 217)Χ2 dfP values
n%n%
Sociodemographic variables (T1)
Gender24.371<0.000
 Females53855.015973.3
 Males44045.05826.7
Education8.5330.036
 Basic12112.4198.8
 Secondary22723.25927.2
 Secondary vocational32633.38740.1
 Higher30431.15224.0
  • Number of EHIF diagnoses is the number of diagnoses recorded in the Estonian Health Insurance Fund for the year of data collection.

  • Number of medicines taken is the number of medicines taken during the previous 2 months, either regularly or for treating specific diseases.

  • ADR, adverse drug reaction; BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; EHIF, Estonian Health Insurance Fund; FFM, Five-Factor Model; NEO PI-3, NEO Personality Inventory-3; T1, first measurement; T2, second measurement (on average 5.3 years after T1).