Table 3

Incidence of pleural empyema and schizophrenia cohort to comparison cohort IRR and aHR

SchizophreniaIRR (95% CI)aHR‡ (95% CI)
NoYes
EventPYRate†EventPYRate†
Age (years)
 20–4930297 2381.0196307 0593.133.10 (2.06 to 4.67)***2.77 (1.84 to 4.18)***
 50–641745 1623.764852 8319.092.41 (1.39 to 4.19)**2.55 (1.45 to 4.49)**
 ≥652029 5846.762013 54614.82.15 (1.16 to 3.99)*2.68 (1.43 to 5.05)**
Sex
 Women12182 6400.6640177 7292.253.43 (1.80 to 6.53)***3.70 (1.93 to 7.11)***
 Men55189 3452.90124195 7066.342.18 (1.59 to 2.99)***2.63 (1.90 to 3.65)***
Occupation§
 Office worker20164 7831.2159164 1443.592.99 (1.80 to 4.96)***3.05 (1.83 to 5.11)***
 Labourer28115 9102.4247116 8524.021.67 (1.04 to 2.66)*2.50 (1.53 to 4.08)***
 Other1991 2912.085892 4396.273.01 (1.79 to 5.05)***3.41 (1.97 to 5.93)***
Monthly income¶
 <15 00028162 0811.7385166 5165.102.95 (1.93 to 4.53)***3.20 (2.07 to 4.94)***
 15 000–19 99935158 3302.2166159 7884.131.87 (1.24 to 2.82)**2.49 (1.62 to 3.82)***
 ≥20 000451 5730.781347 1312.763.63 (1.18 to 11.1)*3.64 (1.17 to 11.4)*
Urbanisation level††
 City24199 2551.2073200 6043.643.03 (1.91 to 4.80)***3.67 (2.29 to 5.90)***
 Rural area43172 7292.4991172 8325.272.11 (1.47 to 3.04)***2.45 (1.69 to 3.56)***
Comorbidity‡‡
 No26283 9340.9296276 0983.483.81 (2.47 to 5.87)***3.73 (2.42 to 5.76)***
 Yes4188 0504.666897 3386.991.51 (1.02 to 2.22)*2.27 (1.50 to 3.42)***
  • *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.

  • †Incidence rate per 10 000 PY.

  • ‡Multivariable analysis controlling for age, sex, occupation, income, urbanisation and comorbidities of diabetes, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, malnutrition and alcohol abuse.

  • §Other occupations include primarily retired, unemployed and low-income populations.

  • ¶1 new Taiwan dollar is equal to 0.03 US dollar.

  • ††The urbanisation level is categorised by the population density of the residential area into two levels: city and rural area.

  • ‡‡Individuals with any comorbidity of diabetes, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, cancer, systemic lupus erythematosus/rheumatoid arthritis/immune disorders, organ transplant, malnutrition, obesity, alcohol abuse, drug abuse and tobacco use disorder were classified into the comorbidity group.

  • IRR, incidence rate ratio; PY, person-years.