Table 2

Incidence of pleural empyema, IRR and aHR measured for pooled study population by study cohort, sociodemographic status and comorbidities

EventPYRate†IRR
(95% CI)
aHR‡
(95% CI)
Schizophrenia
 No67371 9841.801.001.00
 Yes164373 4354.392.44 (1.83 to 3.24)***2.87 (2.14 to 3.84)***
Age (years)
 20–49126604 2972.091.001.00
 50–646597 9936.633.19 (2.36 to 4.30)***2.86 (2.09 to 3.93)***
 ≥654043 1299.274.46 (3.13 to  to 6.37)***3.45 (2.29 to 5.19)***
Sex
 Women52360 3691.441.001.00
 Men179385 0504.653.22 (2.37 to 4.39)***3.52 (2.57 to 4.82)***
Occupation§
 Office worker79328 9272.401.001.00
 Labourer75232 7623.221.34 (0.98 to 1.84)0.94 (0.67 to 1.33)
 Other77183 7304.191.75 (1.28 to 2.39)***1.19 (0.82 to 1.71)
Monthly income¶
 <15 000113328 5973.442.00 (1.20 to 3.33)**1.92 (1.10 to 3.33)*
 15 000–19 999101318 1183.171.84 (1.10 to 3.08)*1.97 (1.15 to 3.36)*
 ≥20 0001798 7041.721.001.00
Urbanisation level††
 City97399 8582.431.001.00
 Rural area134345 5613.881.60 (1.23 to 2.08)***1.46 (1.12 to 1.90)**
Comorbidity
 Diabetes
  No197718 7792.741.001.00
  Yes3426 64112.84.67 (3.24 to 6.73)***2.62 (1.77 to 3.87)***
 Asthma
  No202719 9032.811.001.00
  Yes2925 51611.44.06 (2.75 to 5.99)***1.98 (1.27 to 3.07)**
 COPD
  No182707 7382.571.001.00
  Yes4937 68113.05.07 (3.69 to 6.95)***2.01 (1.38 to 2.95)***
 CLD
  No186655 2002.841.001.00
  Yes4590 2194.991.76 (1.27 to 2.43)***1.00 (0.71 to 1.42)
 Cancer
  No228741 1803.081.00
  Yes342397.082.30 (0.74 to 7.19)
 SLE/RA/immune disorders
  No231745 0753.101.00
  Yes03450.00
 Organ transplant
  No231745 3123.101.00
  Yes01070.00
 Malnutrition
  No223741 2663.011.001.00
  Yes8415419.36.38 (3.15 to 12.9)***3.60 (1.76 to 7.36)***
 Obesity
  No229737 9423.101.00
  Yes274782.670.86 (0.21 to 3.46)
 Alcohol abuse
  No209714 3702.931.001.00
  Yes2231 0497.092.42 (1.56 to 3.77)***1.74 (1.10 to 2.74)*
 Drug abuse
  No220724 9023.031.00
  Yes1120 5175.361.77 (0.96 to 3.24)
 Tobacco use disorder
  No227739 8563.071.00
  Yes455647.192.37 (0.88 to 6.39)
  • *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.

  • †Incidence rate per 10 000 PY.

  • ‡Multivariable analysis controlling for age, sex, occupation, income, urbanisation and comorbidities of diabetes, asthma, COPD, CLD, malnutrition and alcohol abuse.

  • §Other occupations include primarily retired, unemployed and low-income populations.

  • ¶1 new Taiwan dollar is equal to 0.03 US dollar.

  • ††The urbanisation level is categorised by the population density of the residential area into two levels: city and rural area.

  • CLD, chronic liver disease and cirrhosis; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; IRR, incidence rate ratio; PY, person-years; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus.