Table 1

Risk factors for poor childhood nutrition identified by mothers and farmers

Factors identified by discussion groupsConcerns expressed by community membersImportance rating * Relevant quotations
Both mothers and farmers
 Loss of traditional agriculture techniques
  • Loss of ancestral grains due to insects and crop failure

  • The use of chemicals (fertiliser/pesticides)

  • Loss of the manure from traditional animals

  • Not respecting the phases of the moon when cultivating

Morales Chupa
Mothers: 4
Farmers: 5
Arrayanes
Mothers: 4
Iltaqui
Mothers: 4
Farmers: 5
  • We are losing our love of the Earth.

 Eating fewer traditional foods
  • Increased use of cooking oil and rice

  • Decreased consumption of quinoa: takes longer to prepare

  • Availability of unhealthy snacks at school

Morales Chupa
Mothers: 5
Arrayanes
Mothers: 3
Iltaqui
Mothers: 2
Farmers: 3
  • Today our children eat rice, spaghetti, and chicken.

  • We are very lazy because the grains take a long time to cook and we don’t have time.

 Level of income
  • Not enough money to buy foods that they are unable to grow themselves

Morales Chupa
Farmers: no score
Arrayanes
Mothers: 1
Iltaqui
Mothers: 5
Farmers: no score
  • We don’t have a lot of grains because the crop harvests are decreased, and we cannot buy them.

Mothers only (regarding nutrition)
 Parasitic infection
  • Children eating in unhygienic conditions and drinking contaminated water may result in infection

Morales Chupa
Mothers: 1
  • It is possible that parasites are preventing our children from absorbing the nutrients from their diet.

Farmers only (regarding agriculture)
 Access to irrigation
  • Changing climate and rain patterns force farmers to depend on irrigation

  • New crops require more water to grow

Morales Chupa
Farmers: 4
  • We cannot grow food when it doesn’t rain; if the climate was as it was before this would not be a problem.

  • The absence of irrigation has created a challenge for the cultivation of some crops, especially in this dry season.

 Land area
  • Inherited land is divided among all children decreasing the area used to sustain a family

  • Not enough room to expand

  • Decreasing soil fertility and land overuse

Illtaqui
Farmers: 2
  • Land areas are divided each generation among all the children, so each one gets a smaller piece.

  • *From 1 least to 5 most important.