Table 3

Risk factors associated with stunting, overweight and food insecurity in the four communities

Risk factor
First line: exposure
Second line: non-exposure
Had outcomeOR (95% CIa)Had outcomeOR (95% CIa)Had outcomeOR (95% CIa)
StuntingOverweightFood insecurity
Factors specific to the children
 Male child
 Female child
75/151
69/145
1.09 (0.63 to 1.89)76/151
53/147
1.80 (1.11 to 2.98)*103/151
99/147
1.04 (0.85 to 1.28)
 Food insecure
 Food secure
102/200
42/96
1.34 (0.80 to 2.28)92/202
37/96
1.33 (0.80 to 2.28)
Agricultural factors of household
 Household owned animals
 Household did not own animals
119/250
25/46
0.76 (0.30 to 1.93)110/251
19/47
1.15 (0.26 to 5.10)171/251
31/47
1.10 (0.44 to 2.80)
 Household sold crops
 Household did not sell
36/68
103/219
1.27 (0.71 to 2.3)36/68
88/133
1.70 (0.95 to 3.10)45/68
152/221
0.89 (0.49 to 1.73)
 Household used chemicals
 Household did not use chemicals
5/8
87/185
1.8 (0.32 to 74.72)6/8
86/185
3.45 (0.70 to 12.5)4/8
113/185
0.64 (0.06 to 6.26)
 Followed traditional agricultural ways
 Did not use traditional agriculture
46/93
46/100
1.15 (0.62 to 2.13)45/93
47/100
1.06 (0.57 to 1.95)60/93
57/100
1.37 (0.74 to 2.60)
 Household had access to irrigation
 Household did not have access to irrigation
35/102
103/186
0.42 (0.24 to 0.71)*49/103
76/187
1.33 (0.79 to 2.23)76/197
27/93
1.54 (0.89 to 2.83)
 Household sold livestock
 Household did not sell
77/141
52/103
1.80 (1.09 to 3.06)*69/142
45/131
1.81 (1.08 to 3.08)*99/142
89/131
1.09 (0.63 to 1.89)
Food frequencies in the past 24 hours
 Consumed oil
 Did not consume oil
122/246
22/50
1.25 (0.65 to 2.51)108/247
21/51
1.11 (0.58 to 2.25)170/247
32/51
131 (0.63 to 2.53)
 Consumed rice
 Did not consume rice
94/202
50/94
0.77 (0.47 to 1.25)83/204
46/94
0.72 (0.51 to 1.01)135/204
67/94
0.79 (0.47 to 1.31)
 Consumed sugar
 Did not consume sugar
65/142
79/154
0.80 (0.61 to 1.06)56/144
73/154
0.71 (0.41 to 1.21)105/144
97/154
1.58 (0.79 to 3.17)
 Consumed meat
 Did not consume meat
66/142
75/144
0.80 (0.59 to 1.09)64/143
60/145
1.15 (0.86 to 1.52)106/143
93/145
1.60 (0.66 to 3.91
 Consumed fruits
 Did not consume eat fruits
61/131
46/84
0.72 (0.52 to 1.00)45/133
38/84
0.62 (0.42 to 0.90)*94/133
62/84
0.86 (0.31 to 2.38)
 Consumed eggs
 Did not consume eggs
40/96
104/200
0.66 (0.53 to 0.82)*49/98
80/200
1.50 (0.90 to 2.49)58/98
144/200
0.56 (0.41 to 0.77)*
 Consumed juice
 Did not consume juice
64/141
80/155
0.78 (0.52 to 1.17)67/143
62/155
1.32 (0.70 to 2.49)84/143
118/155
0.45 (0.17 to 1.14)
 Consumed milk
 Did not consume milk
52/119
92/177
0.72 (0.54 to 0.96)*47/119
82/179
0.77 (0.46 to 1.29)83/119
119/179
1.16 (0.30 to 4.48)
 Consumed vegetables
 Did not consume vegetables
126/266
18/30
0.60 (0.22 to 1.64)118/268
11/30
1.36 (0.40 to 4.66)182/268
20/30
1.06 (0.20 to 5.50)
 Consumed corn
 Did not consume corn
120/239
24/57
1.39 (0.60 to 3.18)106/239
23/59
1.25 (0.81 to 1.92)156/239
46/59
0.53 (0.21 to 1.33)
 Consumed potatoes
 Did not consume potatoes
115/248
29/48
0.57 (0.24 to 1.31)108/249
21/49
1.02 (0.28 to 3.72)176/249
26/49
2.13 (1.74 to 2.61)*
 Consumed fish
 Did not consume fish
11/31
133/265
0.55 (0.25 to 1.47)13/31
116/267
0.94 (0.62 to 1.43)12/31
190/267
0.26 (0.22 to 0.30)*
 Consumed quinoa
 Did not consume quinoa
19/41
125/255
0.9 (0.42 to 1.85)21/41
108/257
1.45 (0.70 to 3.05)14/41
188/69
0.19 (0.08 to 0.39)*
 Consumed soda
 Did not consume soda
34/76
110/220
0.81 (0.49 to 1.35)30/76
99/222
0.81 (0.42 to 1.57)52/76
150/222
1.04 (0.48 to 2.24)
Household factors
 Crowded household
 Not a crowded household
95/183
49/113
1.41 (0.86 to 2.35)88/183
41/115
1.67 (1.02 to 2.83) *114/183
88/115
0.51 (0.28 to 0.86)*
 Household earned below minimum wage
 Household earned more than minimum wage
57/108
32/81
1.71 (0.92 to 3.28)49/108
40/81
0.85 (0.45 to 1.59)79/108
35/81
3.58 (1.90 to 7.22)*
 Primary caretaker was illiterate
 Primary caretaker was literate
67/115
77/181
1.89 (1.15 to 3.16)*50/115
79/104
1.01 (0.61 to 1.67)74/115
128/183
0.78 (0.14 to 4.16)
  • *Variables that were significant (p<0.05) and used for multivariate analysis.