Table 2

Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted PRs and 95% CIs of starting smoking after the disaster according to demographic, disaster-related and psychosocial factors among 44 729 non-smokers before the disaster

ModelAge-adjusted and sex-adjusted modelMultivariable-adjusted model*
PR(95% CI)P valuesPR(95% CI)P values
n=44 729
Demographic characteristics
 Men (vs women)†2.912.48 to 3.42<0.00013.012.55 to 3.55<0.0001
Age group‡
 Ages 20–49 years5.174.15 to 6.43<0.00015.554.40 to 7.00<0.0001
 Ages 50–64 years1.741.35 to 2.23<0.00011.811.40 to 2.33<0.0001
 Ages ≥65 years (ref.)1.001.00
Educational attainment
Vocational college, junior college or more
(vs lower education)
0.680.57 to 0.82<0.00010.690.57 to 0.83<0.0001
History of mental illness
 Yes (vs no)2.031.54 to 2.67<0.00011.451.09 to 1.930.010
Disaster-related factors
Living arrangement
 Evacuation shelter1.530.75 to 3.130.2461.360.66 to 2.780.409
 Temporary housing1.461.10 to 1.930.0091.250.94 to 1.660.127
 Rental house or apartment1.381.16 to 1.64<0.0011.331.12 to 1.580.001
 Relative’s home1.180.75 to 1.850.4671.140.72 to 1.780.580
 Own home (ref.)1.001.00
House damage

 Yes (vs no)
1.641.35 to 1.99<0.00011.241.01 to 1.500.038
Experience of disaster
 Having experienced a tsunami
 yes (vs no)
1.571.32 to 1.88<0.00011.291.07 to 1.550.008
Psychosocial factors
 Change jobs
 yes (vs no)
1.571.18 to 2.080.0021.411.05 to 1.890.023
 Becoming unemployed
 yes (vs no)
1.531.28 to 1.83<0.00011.190.99 to 1.430.064
 Decreased income
 yes (vs no)
1.180.97 to 1.420.092
 Presence of traumatic symptoms (PCL-S) ≥44 (vs ≤43)2.382.01 to 2.83<0.00011.701.37 to 2.11<0.0001
 Presence of non-specific mental illness (K6) ≥13 (vs ≤12)2.261.88 to 2.72<0.00011.381.09 to 1.750.007
  • *Adjusted for age and sex, educational attainment, history of mental illness, living arrangement, house damage, having experienced a tsunami, change jobs, becoming unemployed, decreased income, the presence of traumatic symptoms and the presence of non-specific mental illness except for the variable of interest.

  • †Age adjusted.

  • ‡Sex adjusted.

  • K6, Kessler Psychological Distress Scale; PCL-S, Checklist-Stressor Specific Version; PR, prevalence ratio.