Table 3

Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted PRs and 95% CIs of quitting smoking after the disaster according to demographic, disaster-related and psychosocial factors among the 14 025 smokers before the disaster

ModelAge-adjusted and sex-adjusted modelMultivariable-adjusted model *
PR(95% CI)P valuesPR(95% CI)P values
n=14025
Demographic characteristics
 Men (vs women)†0.630.56 to 0.71<0.00010.630.56 to 0.71<0.0001
Age group‡
 Ages 20–49 years0.580.50 to 0.66<0.00010.530.46 to 0.62<0.0001
 Ages 50–64 years0.590.50 to 0.68<0.00010.570.48 to 0.66<0.0001
 Ages ≥65 years (ref.)1.001.00
Educational attainment
Vocational college, junior college or more (vs lower education)1.321.17 to 1.49<0.00011.311.16 to 1.47<0.0001
History of mental illness
 Yes (vs no)1.090.87 to 1.370.436
Disaster-related factors
Living arrangement
 Evacuation shelter1.160.66 to 2.040.6131.200.68 to 2.120.537
 Temporary housing0.900.74 to 1.100.3140.950.78 to 1.160.614
 Rental house or apartment1.090.97 to 1.220.1461.121.00 to 1.250.061
 Relative’s home1.240.91 to 1.680.1801.200.88 to 1.630.256
 Own home (ref.)1.001.00
House damage

 Yes (vs no)
1.030.89 to 1.190.705
Experience of disaster
 Having experienced a tsunami
 yes (vs no)
0.970.85 to 1.110.652
Psychosocial factors
 Change jobs
 yes (vs no)
0.940.75 to 1.180.594
 Becoming unemployed
 yes (vs no)
1.090.96 to 1.230.171
 Decreased income
 yes (vs no)
0.850.75 to 0.970.0120.860.75 to 0.980.019
 Presence of traumatic symptoms (PCL-S) ≥44 (vs ≤43)0.850.74 to 0.970.0160.890.76 to 1.050.160
 Presence of non-specific mental illness (K6) ≥13 (vs ≤12)0.830.71 to 0.970.0220.890.74 to 1.070.209
  • *Adjusted for age and sex, educational attainment, living arrangement, decreased income, the presence of traumatic symptoms and the presence of non-specific mental illness except for the variable of interest.

  • †Age adjusted.

  • ‡Sex adjusted.

  • K6, Kessler Psychological Distress Scale; PCL-S, Checklist-Stressor Specific Version; PR, prevalence ratio.