Table 1

Study context and population

StudyCountryWorld Bank
SettingHospital (n)Hospital type*Sample
staff (n)
Staff type*
Kayiga et al, 201616 UgandaLUrban1Tertiary hospital40D, I, R
Gomez Luz et al, 201417
Gomez Luz et al, 201418
BrazilUMMixed27Mixed (all teaching hospitals but 5 secondary level, 22 tertiary level)122C, PI, MA
Hamersveld et al, 201219 TanzaniaLRural1District hospital23D, C, M, N, MA
Bakker et al, 201120 MalawiLMixed2Mixed (one district, one rural hospital)33D, N, M
Hutchinson et al, 201021 BeninLMixed5Mixed (two national university hospitals, one regional, one district, one missionary10MA, HW
Muffler et al, 200722 MoroccoLMMixed13Mixed56MA, M, N, D, I, C, R
Richard et al, 200823 Burkina FasoLUrban1District hospital35D, M, N
Filippi, 200424 Benin, Cote D’Ivore, Ghana, MoroccoL, L, L, LMUrban12Mixed (first level in Morocco, more specialised in other countries)162D, M, I, N
  • *L, low income; LM, lower middle income; UM, upper middle income (countries are classified based on the years when the study was performed).

  • C, coordinator, D, doctors, I, in charge; HW, health workers; I, investigators; M, midwives; MA, manager; n, nurses; PI, principal investigator; R,resident.