Table 2

Study methods

AuthorTiming in respect of NMCR startMethods and toolsWho performed the evaluation?Other methods related to data collectionOther methods related to data analysis
Kayiga et al, 201616 During NMCR implementationInterviews+three focus groupsNROpen-ended questions. Midwives, doctors and residents involved in focus group separately.All data were transcribed coded and analysed by thematic analysis.
Gomez Luz et al, 201417
Gomez Luz et al, 201418
6 and 12 months after start of implementationSemistructured telephone interviewsInterviewers skilled in how to conduct telephone surveys were specifically trained for the studyPretested tool for guiding the interviews. At least six attempts made to contact each potential subject. When telephone contact was unsuccessful, messages were sent by email. The interviews were conducted by phone, after informed consent, and simultaneously recorded.The NVivo software program was used to codify the interviews, organise and analyse the qualitative data. Thematic content analysis was conducted by two authors and reviewed by two other authors. Quotations from the transcripts were used to illustrate the results presented.
Hamersveld et al, 201219 2 years after implementationIn-depth interviews+observation +Two study authorsA semistructured interview guide based on earlier studies. Participants conveniently selected. Interviews conducted in Swahili for those who could not express themselves in English. During the study period, points of key interest were analysed and used to refine questions and elaborate on certain areas while maintaining the structure of the interview guide.The recording was transcribed manually and then analysed by using inductive coding. All interviews in Swahili were recorded, transcribed and translated into English. Further analysis grouped the codes into categories and cross-links within the data as well as between data, and literature were identified. Two authors independently analysed the data, after which results were compared.
Bakker et al, 201120 After national institutionalisation of NMCR and during an impact studySemistructured interviews, focus groups, observation and key informant interviewsIndependent primary investigator not part of the hospital staffInterviews: semistructured questionnaire previously used for another study and probed for critical views; convenience and snowball sampling; the inclusion criterion for participants was regular involvement with obstetric healthcare in the district.
Focus groups: conducted towards the end of the study period to complement interviews.
All data were literally transcribed, using Express Scribe transcription software. Relevant data were entered into Microsoft Excel. Analysis and statement coding were performed using MAXQDA 2010 software.
Hutchinson et al, 201221 7 years after start of NMCR implementationSemistructured interviewsFirst author, a local researcher not involved in the NMCR implementation and not known by participantsA literature review informed the development of a semistructured interview guide. Open-ended questions allowed participants to address issues important to them. The guide was translated into French and modified following advice by local scientists. Participants were selected randomly ensuring inclusion of a range of professional backgrounds. All interviews were conducted in French, transcribed and translated in English.Transcripts were read numerous times in order to become familiar with emerging themes.
Framework analysis was used to provide a systematic approach for coding themes.
Muffler et al, 200722 About 10–12 years after start of implementationSelf-administered questionnaire+semistructured interviewsNRA self-administered questionnaire was sent to 84 public maternities to identify those implementing the audits. All but one maternity units were visited. Semistructured interviews were conducted individually. In addition, locally available data on audit activity was gathered from audit reports and overviews were systematically reviewed and compared with data gathered in the interviews.Interview data were analysed using systematic content analysis.
Richard et al, 200823 About 1 year after start of the implementationQuestionnaire+reviews of notes from audit sessionsResearch midwife, not part of the hospital staffA pretested questionnaire was used. It contained closed and open-ended questions, and it was administrated face to face by a single interviewer.Data were analysed using a qualitative and quantitative approach. Answers from open-ended questions were coded. Answers were then grouped according to themes to build tables. Two authors conducted the analysis.
Filippi et al, 200424 Few years after start of implementationInterviews+observation of sessions+ documents reviewLocal researchers, externally supported by international teamNRNR
  • NMCR, near-miss case review; NR, not further reported.