Table 1

Inclusion and exclusion criteria

Inclusion criteriaExclusion criteria
Cluster level
  • Acute-care wards with at least 150 admissions/year

  • Use of CPOE

  • Emergency room(s)

  • Outpatient clinics

  • Overflow wards

  • Absence of a ‘matchable’ ward regarding specialty and baseline antibiotic use

  • Haematopoietic stem cell transplant wards

  • ICU

Physician level
  • All physicians involved in antibiotic prescribing decisions in the participating wards

  • None

Patient level
  • All patients hospitalised in the participating wards

  • None

  • CPOE, computerised physician order entry; ICU, intensive care unit.