Table 3

Individual, manager and country contextual characteristics associated with greater presenteeism among individuals with depression* (multivariable linear regression, n=2715)†

Unadjusted GEE parameter estimates (95% CI)P valuesAdjusted GEE parameter estimates (95% CI)P values
Individual characteristics
 Gender
  Male5.38 (0.17 to 10.59)0.043.79 (2.54 to 5.03)<0.0001
  FemaleReferenceReference
 Age
  45–645.19 (2.97 to 7.41)0.024.53 (3.42 to 5.64)<0.0001
  25–440.91 (−1.36 to 2.54)0.74−1.14 (−2.46 to 0.17)0.09
  16–24ReferenceReference
 Education
  High0.79 (−0.95 to 1.88)0.550.05 (−1.07 to 1.17)0.93
  Medium1.82 (0.70 to 2.95)<0.0011.22 (0.22 to 1.69)<0.001
  LowReferenceReference
 Working in a larger company0.29 (−0.35 to 1.22)0.43−0.37 (−1.19 to 0.46)0.39
Country contextual characteristics
 Offered help7.82 (5.46 to 11.12)<0.0017.08 (6.59 to 7.58)<0.001
 Avoided talking about it0.41 (−1.97 to 2.78)0.630.52 (−0.59 to 1.63)0.36
 Country GDP (standardised)‡2.55 (0.55 to 4.55)0.013.09 (2.31 to 3.88)<0.001