Table 2

Intake of iron and key absorption modifiers at 7 and 12 months of age from complementary foods and infant milks*

ControlBLISSDifference (95% CI)†P values
7 months of agen=77n=85
 Energy (kJ/day), mean (SD)2862 (548)2996 (613)145 (−31.2 to 321)0.11
 Energy from complementary foods only (kJ/day)‡, mean (SD)672 (506)799 (595)144 (−26.2 to 314)0.10
 Dietary iron (mg/day)2.7 (1.3, 6.9)3.0 (1.5, 7.3)0.6 (−1.0 to 2.3)0.46
 Dietary iron from complementary foods only (mg/day)§1.0 (0.5, 2.2)1.2 (0.7, 2.0)0.2 (−0.2 to 0.6)0.34
 Haem iron (mg/day)0.0 (0.0, 0.1)0.0 (0.0, 0.1)0.0 (−0.0 to 0.1)0.10
 Non-haem iron (mg/day)2.6 (1.3, 6.9)2.9 (1.4, 7.3)0.4 (−1.3 to 2.0)0.67
 Meat, fish, poultry (g/day)2.8 (0.0, 11.1)4.3 (1.4, 8.8)1.3 (−1.9 to 4.4)0.42
 Phytate (mg/day)36 (16.3, 75.2)45 (23.0, 77.6)4.2 (−15.0 to 23.4)0.67
 Phytate:iron molar ratio¶1.0 (0.4, 2.3)1.3 (0.6, 2.7)0.4 (−0.2 to 1.0)0.18
 Vitamin C (mg/day)59.2 (41.7, 75.6)49.2 (38.3, 67.9)−9.7 (−18.4 to –0.9) 0.032
12 months of agen=68n=75
 Energy (kJ/day), mean (SD)3573 (776)3623 (1048)109 (−191 to 409)0.48
 Energy from complementary foods only (kJ/day)‡, mean (SD)2400 (848)2527 (1183)195 (−142 to 533)0.25
 Dietary iron (mg/day)5.3 (3.1, 8.4)4.7 (3.1, 7.3)−0.1 (−1.6 to 1.4)0.87
 Dietary iron from complementary foods only (mg/day)§3.2 (2.3, 4.6)3.2 (2.5, 4.1)−0.0 (−0.6 to 0.6)0.94
 Haem iron (mg/day)0.2 (0.1, 0.3)0.2 (0.1, 0.3)0.0 (−0.0 to 0.1)0.57
 Non-haem iron (mg/day)5.0 (2.9, 8.1)4.5 (2.9, 7.0)−0.1 (−1.7 to 1.4)0.85
 Meat, fish, poultry (g/day)19.3 (7.9, 33.6)19.3 (11.2, 31.1)−1.4 (−9.0 to 6.2)0.72
 Phytate (mg/day)187 (118, 310)229 (152, 274)37 (−20.4 to 94.8)0.20
 Phytate:iron molar ratio¶3.8 (2.3, 6.2)4.3 (2.8, 6.5)0.6 (−0.7 to 1.9)0.35
 Vitamin C (mg/day)48.1 (39.4, 69.5)50.4 (36.6, 61.4)0.4 (−9.4 to 10.3)0.93
  • Bold indicates a statistically significant difference at  p < 0.05.

  • Data presented as median (25th, 75th percentile), unless otherwise stated.

  • *Intake reported during the 3-day weighed diet records collected at 7 and 12 months of age.

  • †Difference adjusted for infant age (in days) and sex, and maternal education and parity.

  • ‡Excludes energy from breast milk and infant formula.

  • §Excludes iron from breast milk and infant formula.

  • ¶Calculated as [phytate (mg)/660]/[iron (mg)/55.9].

  • BLISS, Baby-Led Introduction to SolidS.