Male (n=3251)(n=2805)(n=268)(n=25)(n=153)
Age at baseline†, mean years (SD), range: 18–3225.9 (3.7)26.1 (3.7)24.6 (3.8)25.9 (3.6)0.26
Unemployed/not working due to illness or disability in the last year‡, % (n)7.8 (218)15.3 (41)8.0 (2)11.1 (17)<0.001
Uninsured (lacked health insurance) in the last year‡, % (n)5.2 (147)9.7 (26)0.0 (0)11.1 (17)<0.001
Lacked a routine physical exam in the last year‡, % (n)48.8 (1369)47.8 (128)36.0 (9)54.9 (84)0.26
HRQL§ dimensions, % (n)
Mobility ≥slight problems3.1 (86)6.3 (17)8.0 (2)2.6 (4)0.02
Self-care ≥slight problems0.6 (18)1.1 (3)4.0 (1)0.0 (0)0.11
Usual activities ≥slight problems3.8 (107)10.5 (28)8.0 (2)5.9 (9)<0.001
Pain/discomfort ≥slight problems25.4 (711)38.8 (104)32.0 (8)24.2 (37)<0.001
Anxiety/depression ≥moderate problems10.2 (285)25.8 (69)24.0 (6)28.1 (43)<0.001
HRQL index score§, mean (SD)0.92 (0.09)0.87 (0.11)0.86 (0.12)0.89 (0.09)<0.001
Less than full health (HRQL index score <1)47.3 (1329)70.2 (188)76.0 (19)68.0 (104)<0.001
HRQL index score among those with less than full health, mean (SD)0.84 (0.06)0.82 (0.08)0.82 (0.11)0.84 (0.06)<0.001
  • *P values were calculated using analysis of variance for continuous variables and χ2 test for categorical variables (including those with a zero frequency cell such as the self-care HRQL dimension).

  • †Multiple imputation used in subsequent analyses for any missing covariates data. Per cent missing: race/ethnicity (1.2%), marital status (0.2%), socioeconomic position (17.8%) and geographical region (0.1%).

  • ‡As reported in 2013.

  • §Health-related quality of life (HRQL) measured by the EQ-5D-5L, a validated preference-weighted measure for US populations.

  • ¶Possible scores ranged from −0.109 (‘worse than death’) to 1 (‘full health’).