Table 3

Iron from complementary foods at 7 and 12 months of age (consumers and non-consumers)*†

ControlBLISSDifference (95% CI)‡P values
mg/daymg/day
7 months of agen=77n=85
 Vegetables0.16 (0.0, 0.4)17 (9, 25)0.10 (0.0, 0.2)8.4 (6, 17)−0.1 (−0.1 to 0.0)0.07
 Fruit and fruit juice0.13 (0.0, 0.2)11 (5, 24)0.09 (0.0, 0.2)7.2 (3, 12)−0.0 (−0.1 to 0.0)0.19
 Iron-fortified infant cereal0.08 (0.0, 0.7)7.9 (0, 54)0.19 (0.0, 0.5)19 (0, 43)0.1 (−0.1 to 0.3)0.25
 Breads and cereals¶0.09 (0.0, 0.3)7.2 (2, 26)0.26 (0.1, 0.4)23 (10, 35)0.2 (0.1 to 0.2) <0.001
 Red meat**0.01 (0.0, 0.2)1.9 (0, 14)0.06 (0.0, 0.2)7.2 (1, 16)0.1 (0.0 to 0.1) 0.010
 Miscellaneous††0.01 (0.0, 0.1)1.1 (0, 6)0.01 (0.0, 0.1)1.3 (0, 6)0.0 (−0.0 to 0.0)0.75
 Dairy0.00‡‡ (0.0, 0.0)0.1 (0, 0.4)0.00 (0.0, 0.0)0.5 (0, 2)0.0 (0.0 to 0.0) 0.010
 Legumes, nuts, seeds and eggs0.00 (0.0, 0.0)0.0 (0, 2)0.04 (0.0, 0.1)4.5 (1, 11)0.0 (0.0 to 0.1) 0.001
 Other meat§§0.00 (0.0, 0.0)0.0 (0, 3)0.00 (0.0, 0.0)0.4 (0, 4)0.0 (−0.0 to 0.0)0.57
12 months of agen=68n=75
 Breads and cereals¶0.84 (0.5, 1.6)32 (16, 48)1.10 (0.6, 1.8)38 (27, 50)0.2 (−0.2 to 0.5)0.26
 Vegetables0.38 (0.2, 0.5)11 (6, 16)0.29 (0.1, 0.5)8.9 (4, 14)−0.1 (−0.2 to –0.0) 0.027
 Miscellaneous††0.32 (0.1, 0.6)9.8 (4, 18)0.18 (0.1, 0.5)5.7 (2, 17)−0.1 (−0.3 to 0.0)0.05
 Fruit and fruit juice0.27 (0.2, 0.5)8.3 (5, 13)0.32 (0.2, 0.5)10 (5, 14)0.0 (−0.1 to 0.1)0.33
 Other meat§§  0.17 (0.1, 0.3)5.5 (2, 9)0.17 (0.1, 0.3)5.1 (1, 4)−0.0 (−0.1 to 0.1)0.94
 Legumes, nuts, seeds and eggs0.10 (0.0, 0.3)2.8 (0, 10)0.16 (0.0, 0.4)4.6 (1, 10)0.0 (−0.0 to 0.1)0.28
 Red meat**0.09 (0.0, 0.3)2.5 (0, 11)0.15 (0.0, 0.4)3.8 (0, 12)0.1 (−0.1 to 0.2)0.40
 Dairy0.06 (0.0, 0.1)1.5 (1, 4)0.05 (0.0, 0.1)1.7 (0, 4)−0.0 (−0.0 to 0.0)0.81
 Iron-fortified infant cereal0.00 (0.0, 0.0)0.0 (0, 0)0.00 (0.0, 0.1)0.0 (0, 5)
  • Bold indicates a statistically significant difference at p<0.05.

  • Data presented as median (25th, 75th percentile).

  • *Intake reported during the 3-day weighed diet records collected at 7 and 12 months of age.

  • †Ordered from highest to lowest contributor of iron to the intakes of the control group.

  • ‡Difference in median iron (mg/day) intake between groups: negative values represent lower values in BLISS than in control, positive values represent higher values in BLISS than in control, adjusted for infant age (in days) and sex, and maternal education and parity.

  • §Data expressed as median percentages (NB: mean percentages added to 100% of total iron intakes from complementary foods).

  • ¶Breads and cereals other than iron-fortified infant cereals.

  • **Red meat defined as: beef, lamb, mutton, venison.

  • ††Miscellaneous defined as: fats, sugar, sweet foods, herbs and spices, sauces, spreads, beverages, etc.

  • ‡‡Where the median intake is 0.00, this has occurred because more than half of the infants did not consume this food. Some infants did consume these foods, however; so, it was possible for differences in intake to be significant. Similarly, the difference is reported as 0.00 if it is smaller than 0.05 and therefore rounds down to 0.00.

  • §§Other meat defined as: fish, poultry, pork, processed meats.

  • BLISS, Baby-Led Introduction to SolidS.