Table 3

Mean differences in symptom scores for those whose masks showed evidence of metaphor subtypes

Variable (% coded positive)PCL-M (η2 =0.23) sη2 PHQ-9 (η2 =0.28) sη2 GAD-7 (η2 =0.50) sη2
NoYes F(1, 306)NoYes F(1, 245)NoYes F(1, 54)
Colour symbolism (12.2%)51.1458.348.23**0.0313.9216.967.18**0.0310.
Cultural/historical characters (5.7%)55.7153.780.270.00116.8014.07 3.53*** 0.0213.106.209.19**0.20
Sociocultural symbols (11.4%)56.0853.410.880.00116.3314.542.090.00313.226.08 6.57*0.15
Nature metaphors (8.9%)57.4652.03 3.38*** 0.0116.1114.771.230.00310.538.760.920.01
  • All three analyses of covariance tests were controlled for time in service, ethnicity and officer status.

  • *P<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.1

  • GAD-7, Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale; PCL-M, PTSD Checklist for DSM-5; PHQ-9, Patient Health Questionnaire-9; PTSD, post-traumatic stress disorder.