Table 5

Differences in geo-data between urban and rural areas within GECCO*

Spatial scaleRespondents in urban areas
(n=25 702)
Respondents in rural areas
(n=17 976)
P value
Population and households
Number of men and women (Median (IQR))PC49540.0 (6915.0–12 350.0)5265.0 (2570.0–8390.0)<0.001
Percentage of residents (≥65 years) (Median (IQR))Neighbourhood12.0 (7.0–18.0)13.0 (10.0–16.0)<0.001
Percentage of Western immigrants (Median (IQR))Neighbourhood9.0 (7.0–11.0)5.0 (4.0–8.0)<0.001
Percentage of non-Western immigrants (Median (IQR))Neighbourhood8.0 (4.0–16.0)2.0 (1.0–3.0)<0.001
Average household size (Mean (SD))PC42.2 (0.3)2.5 (0.2)<0.001
Housing stock (Median (IQR))Neighbourhood1530.0 (875.0–2827.5)790.0 (325.0–1525.0)<0.001
Socioeconomic status
Socioeconomic status score (Median (IQR))PC40.16 (−0.53–0.63)0.40 (0.08–0.71)<0.001
Home value (in €1000,-) (Median (IQR))Neighbourhood189.0 (153.0–229.0)230.0 (190.0–276.0)<0.001
Social security
Number of social security beneficiaries per 1000 households (Mean (SD))Neighbourhood50.3 (46.8)20.3 (18.9)<0.001
Number of incapacity benefits per 1000 residents (15–64 years old) (Mean (SD))Neighbourhood79.3 (28.3)73.8 (32.7)<0.001
Road-traffic, rail-traffic and air-traffic noise (in dB (A)) (Mean (SD))PC654.2 (4.7)51.7 (6.6)<0.001
Air pollution
Mass concentration of NOx (in µg/m3) (Mean (SD))PC638.1 (10.7)28.3 (7.3)<0.001
Reflectance of PM2.5 filters (in 10–5/m) (Mean (SD))PC61.3 (0.2)1.1 (0.2)<0.001
Mass concentration of PM2.5 (in µg/m3) (Mean (SD))PC616.6 (0.6)16.4 (0.7)<0.001
Mass concentration of PMcoarse (in µg/m3) (Mean (SD))PC68.6 (0.8)7.9 (0.3)<0.001
Mass concentration of NO2 (in µg/m3) (Mean (SD))PC626.8 (5.7)19.3 (4.1)<0.001
Liveability (n (%))PC4<0.001
  Extremely negative35 (0.1)0 (0.0)
  Very negative201 (0.8)0 (0.0)
  Moderate1310 (5.1)6 (0.1)
  Moderate positive4475 (17.4)363 (2.0)
  Positive13 552 (52.8)3012 (16.8)
  Very positive5998 (23.4)14 116 (78.9)
  Extremely positive96 (0.4)384 (2.2)
  • *The sample size may vary for some variables, because of missing values. Means and SD are presented for normally distributed continuous variables. Medians and IQR are presented for skewed continuous variables. Frequencies and proportions are presented for categorical variables. Differences in mean were tested using Independent-Samples T-test for normally distributed continuous variables, differences in median were tested using Mann-Whitney U test for skewed continuous variables and differences in frequencies were tested using Pearson χ² test.

  • dB(A), A-weighted decibels; GECCO, Geoscience and Health Cohort Consortium;  n, number of observations; NO2, nitrogen dioxide; NOx, nitrogen oxides; PC4, 4-digit postal code; PC6, 6-digit postal code; PMcoarse, particulate matter with diameter 2.5–10 µm; PM2.5, particulate matter with diameter ≤2.5 µm.