Table 4

A selection of geo-data within GECCO and within each individual cohort study*†‡ 

Spatial scaleThe NetherlandsGECCO
(all cohort studies)
Generations2-studyLongitudinal Aging
Study Amsterdam
Netherlands Longitudinal
Study on Hearing
Netherlands Study of Depression and AnxietyNetherlands Twin
Register
New Hoorn Study
Spatial distribution of cohort study
Local versus nationwide cohort studyNationwideNationwideNationwideNationwideNationwideNationwideLocal
Municipalities inhabited by participants (n (%))‡Municipality458458 (100.0)53 (12.9)90 (19.7)288 (62.9)205 (44.8)458 (100.0)3 (0.7)
Population and households
Number of men and women (Median (IQR))PC42595.0
(680.0–6696.3)
7980.0
(4805–11 190.0)
9045.0
(5355.0–12 342.5)
8950.0
(5775.0–11 940.0)
8345.0
(5500.0–11 045.0)
9355.0
(6340–12 470.0)
7540.0
(4595.0–10 625.0)
9540.0
(5095.0–11 450.0)
Percentage of residents (≥65 years) (Median (IQR))Neighbourhood13.0 (9.0–18.0)13.0 (8.0–17.0)12.0 (8.0–16.0)14.0 (10.0–20.0)13.0 (8.0–17.0)12.0 (7.0–17.0)13.0 (9.0–17.0)11.0 (7.0–18.0)
Percentage of Western immigrants (Median (IQR))Neighbourhood8.0 (6.0–11.0)8.0 (5.0–10.0)9.0 (7.0–14.0)7.0 (4.0–10.0)9.0 (7.0–11.0)10.0 (7.0–14.0)8.0 (5.0–10.0)8.0 (6.0–9.0)
Percentage of non-Western immigrants (Median (IQR))Neighbourhood5.0 (2.0–13.0)4.0 (2.0–11.0)10.0 (4.0–18.0)5.0 (2.0–14.5)6.0 (3.0–12.0)7.0 (4.0–17.0)4.0 (2.0–9.0)9.0 (4.0–14.0)
Average household size (Mean (SD))PC42.3 (0.3)2.4 (0.3)2.2 (0.4)2.3 (0.4)2.3 (0.4)2.1 (0.4)2.4 (0.3)2.3 (0.2)
Housing stock (Median (IQR))Neighbourhood1370.0
(710.0–2440.0)
1195.0
(610.0–2210.0)
1725.0
(905.0–3390.0)
1175.0
(500.0–2130.0)
1390.0
(762.5–2605.0)
1817.5
(785.0–3610.0)
1260.0
(635.0–2215.0)
730.0
(430.0–920.0)
Socioeconomic status
Socioeconomic status score (Median (IQR))PC40.21
(−0.46 to 0.65)
0.27
(−0.22 to 0.67)
0.68
(−0.15 to 1.13)
0.32
(−0.20 to 0.50)
0.28
(−0.39 to 0.72)
0.09
(−0.96 to 0.63)
0.32
(−0.17 to 0.71)
−0.04
(−0.15 to 0.16)
Home value (in €1000,-) (Median (IQR))Neighbourhood197.0
(155.0–242.0)
205.0
(165.0–248.0)
244.0
(198.0–296.0)
193.0
(164.0–244.0)
200.0
(162.0–247.0)
207.0
(151.3–253.0)
208.0
(168.0–248.0)
175.0
(152.0–220.0)
Social security
Number of social security beneficiaries per 1000 households (Mean (SD))Neighbourhood46.0 (48.2)38.1 (40.8)34.0 (36.9)42.2 (41.4)41.5 (40.6)54.4 (53.4)36.5 (39.6)37.0 (36.2)
Number of incapacity benefits per 1000 residents (15–64 years old)
(Mean (SD))
Neighbourhood78.5 (35.3)77.1 (30.3)65.5 (24.6)88.4 (37.1)74.6 (25.4)73.1 (38.3)75.0 (28.2)101.1 (30.3)
Noise
Road-traffic, rail-traffic and air-traffic noise (in dB (A)) (Mean (SD))PC653.5 (5.8)53.1 (5.7)55.8 (4.8)53.9 (5.7)53.9 (5.5)54.8 (3.3)52.9 (5.9)53.8 (4.1)
Air pollution
Mass concentration of NOx (in µg/m3) (Mean (SD))PC635.2 (11.5)34.0 (10.6)38.2 (14.0)35.6 (12.4)36.2 (11.6)40.0 (12.2)33.4 (10.5)32.5 (4.6)
Reflectance of PM2.5 filters (in 10–5/m) (Mean (SD))PC61.3 (0.2)1.2 (0.2)1.3 (0.3)1.2 (0.3)1.3 (0.3)1.4 (0.3)1.2 (0.2)1.1 (0.1)
Mass concentration of PM2.5 (in µg/m3) (Mean (SD))PC616.6 (0.7)16.5 (0.7)16.3 (0.6)16.4 (0.8)16.6 (0.7)16.4 (0.6)16.5 (0.7)15.9 (0.2)
Mass concentration of PMcoarse (in µg/m3) (Mean (SD))PC68.4 (0.8)8.3 (0.8)8.7 (1.1)8.5 (1.0)8.5 (0.9)8.8 (1.1)8.2 (0.7)8.2 (0.3)
Mass concentration of NO2 (in µg/m3) (Mean (SD))PC624.4 (6.8)23.7 (6.3)26.0 (7.7)23.7 (7.0)25.2 (6.9)27.9 (7.5)23.3 (6.2)22.7 (2.3)
Liveability
Liveability (n (%))PC4
 Extremely negative27 635 (0.2)37 (0.1)0 (0.0)2 (0.1)0 (0.0)6 (0.2)29 (0.1)0 (0.0)
 Very negative195 255 (1.2)207 (0.5)0.0 (0.0)12 (0.6)7 (0.7)9 (0.3)179 (0.5)0 (0.0)
 Moderate766 535 (4.7)1349 (3.0)12 (6.0)159 (7.5)30 (3.0)265 (8.9)883 (2.5)0 (0.0)
 Moderate positive2 219 065 (13.7)4921 (11.1)20 (10.0)241 (11.4)126 (12.7)603 (20.3)3418 (9.6)513 (18.3)
 Positive5 827 290 (35.8)16 844 (37.8)70 (34.8)580 (27.3)438 (44.2)1298 (43.7)12 165 (34.3)2293 (81.7)
 Very positive7 047 355 (43.3)20 661 (46.4)94 (46.8)1110 (52.3)378 (38.1)772 (26.0)18 307 (51.7)0 (0.0)
 Extremely positive183 105 (1.1)493 (1.1)5 (2.4)17 (0.8)12 (1.3)17 (0.6)442 (1.3)0 (0.0)
 Urbanisation grade
Urbanised area
(yes (n (%))
Neighbourhood10 099 420 (61.8)25 702 (58.8)142 (71.4)1194 (58.7)685 (70.1)2278 (76.7)18 947 (54.5)2456 (88.9)
  • *Table 4 presents data for all cohort studies in 2006, except for the Generations2-study. For the Generations2-study geo-data from 2009 are shown.

  • †The sample size may vary for some variables, because of missing values. Means and SD are presented for normally distributed continuous variables. Medians and IQR are presented for skewed continuous variables. Frequencies and proportions are presented for categorical variables.

  • ‡In 2006 and 2009, there were 458 and 411 municipalities in the Netherlands, respectively.

  • dB(A), A-weighted decibels; GECCO, Geoscience and Health Cohort Consortium; n, number of observations; NO2,  nitrogen dioxide; NOx,nitrogen oxides; PC4, 4-digit postal code; PC6, 6-digit postal code; PMcoarse, particulate matter with diameter 2.5–10 µm; PM2.5, particulate matter with diameter ≤2.5 µm.