Table 7

Age-sex-adjusted correlates of WASH access among people with disabilities

Same sanitation facility as other household membersAccess without contact with faecesCollect water for themselves
No
n (%)
Yes
n (%)
Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted OR (95% CI)No
n (%)
Yes
n (%)
Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted OR (95% CI)No
n (%)
Yes
n (%)
Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted OR (95% CI)
Cameroon (n=412)
 Age group (years)
  5–1718 (45.0)93 (25.0)Ref.24 (40.7)87 (24.7)Ref.26 (20.2)85 (30.0)Ref.
  18–495 (12.5)81 (21.8)2.8 (1.0 to 8.0)11 (18.6)75 (21.3)1.8 (0.8 to 4.0)19 (14.7)67 (23.7)1.0 (0.5 to 1.9)
  50+17 (42.5)198 (53.2)2.1 (1.0 to 4.3)24 (40.7)191 (54.1)2.1 (1.2 to 4.0)*84 (65.1)131 (46.3)0.4 (0.3 to 0.7)*
 Sex
  Male24 (60.0)150 (40.3)Ref.29 (49.2)145 (41.1)Ref.70 (54.3)104 (36.8)Ref.
  Female16 (40.0)222 (59.7)2.0 (1.0 to 4.0)30 (50.9)208 (58.9)1.3 (0.7 to 2.3)59 (45.7)179 (63.3)2.1 (1.4 to 3.3)*
 Type
  Multiple23 (57.5)126 (33.9)0.6 (0.3 to 1.3)29 (49.2)120 (34.0)0.8 (0.4 to 1.5)62 (48.1)87 (30.7)0.6 (0.4 to 1.1)
  Hearing2 (5.0)49 (13.2)2.3 (0.5 to 10.9)5 (8.5)46 (13.0)1.5 (0.5 to 4.3)13 (10.1)38 (13.4)1.6 (0.8 to 3.5)
  Seeing2 (5.0)49 (13.2)2.9 (0.6 to 13.8)3 (5.1)48 (13.6)3.2 (0.9 to 11.3)12 (9.3)39 (13.8)1.8 (0.8 to 4.0)
  Intellectual0 (0.0)27 (7.3)0 (0.0)27 (7.7)2 (1.6)25 (8.8)4.5 (1.0 to 20.7)
  Physical13 (32.5)121 (32.5)Ref.22 (37.3)112 (31.7)Ref.40 (31.0)94 (33.2)Ref.
 Severity
  Moderate19 (47.5)324 (87.1)Ref.32 (54.2)311 (88.1)Ref.89 (69.0)254 (89.8)Ref.
  Severe21 (52.5)48 (12.9)0.1 (0.1 to 0.3)*27 (45.8)42 (11.9)0.2 (0.1 to 0.3)*40 (31.0)29 (10.3)0.2 (0.1 to 0.3)*
India (n=508)
 Age group (years)
  5–179 (36.0)58 (12.0)Ref.28 (13.0)39 (13.3)Ref.18 (15.4)49 (12.5)Ref.
  18–4911 (44.0)166 (34.4)2.4 (0.9 to 6.0)75 (34.9)102 (34.8)1.0 (0.6 to 1.7)27 (23.1)150 (38.4)2.0 (1.0 to 4.0)
  50+5 (20.0)259 (53.6)8.2 (2.6 to 25.4)*112 (52.1)152 (51.9)1.0 (0.6 to 1.7)72 (61.5)192 (49.1)1.0 (0.5 to 1.8)
 Sex
  Male10 (40.0)231 (47.8)Ref.98 (45.6)143 (48.8)Ref.58 (49.6)183 (46.8)Ref.
  Female15 (60.0)252 (52.2)0.7 (0.3 to 1.6)117 (54.4)150 (51.2)0.9 (0.6 to 1.3)59 (50.4)208 (53.2)1.1 (0.7 to 1.7)
 Type
  Multiple13 (52.0)186 (38.5)0.8 (0.3 to 2.0)91 (42.3)108 (36.9)0.8 (0.5 to 1.3)57 (48.7)142 (36.3)1.0 (0.6 to 1.8)
  Hearing1 (4.0)78 (16.2)5.4 (0.7 to 42.7)26 (12.1)53 (18.1)1.5 (0.8 to 2.5)14 (12.0)65 (16.6)2.3 (1.1 to 4.6)*
  Seeing0 (0.0)76 (15.7)35 (16.3)41 (14.0)0.8 (0.4 to 1.4)9 (7.7)67 (17.1)3.4 (1.5 to 7.6)*
  Intellectual1 (4.0)16 (3.3)0.8 (0.1 to 7.7)7 (3.3)10 (3.4)2.1 (0.4 to 11.0)4 (3.4)13 (3.3)0.9 (0.2 to 5.0)
  Physical10 (40.0)127 (26.3)Ref.56 (26.1)81 (27.7)Ref.33 (28.2)104 (26.6)Ref.
 Severity
  Moderate17 (68.0)364 (75.4)Ref.150 (69.8)231 (78.8)Ref.94 (80.4)287 (73.4)Ref.
  Severe8 (32.0)119 (24.6)0.9 (0.4 to 2.2)65 (30.2)62 (21.2)0.6 (0.4 to 0.9)*23 (19.7)104 (26.6)1.4 (0.8 to 2.3)
Malawi (n=215)
 Age group
  2–176 (50.0)40 (19.9)Ref.10 (34.5)35 (19.1)Ref.14 (14.0)33 (29.0)Ref.
  18–495 (41.7)49 (24.4)1.5 (0.4 to 5.2)2 (6.9)52 (28.4)7.4 (1.5 to 36.1)*20 (20.0)34 (29.8)0.7 (0.3 to 1.7)
  50+1 (8.3)112 (55.7)18.2 (2.1 to 157.6)*17 (58.6)96 (52.5)1.6 (0.6 to 3.8)66 (66.0)47 (41.2)0.3 (0.1 to 0.6)*
 Sex
  Male5 (41.7)96 (47.8)Ref.15 (51.7)86 (47.0)Ref.52 (50.0)49 (43.0)Ref.
  Female7 (58.3)105 (52.4)0.6 (0.2 to 2.0)14 (48.3)97 (53.0)1.3 (0.6 to 2.8)48 (48.0)65 (57.0)1.7 (1.0 to 3.1)
 Type
  Multiple6 (50.0)67 (35.1)Ref.16 (55.2)56 (32.4)Ref.43 (44.8)30 (27.8)Ref.
  Hearing2 (16.7)25 (13.1)1.9 (0.3 to 11.0)1 (3.5)26 (15.0)9.7 (1.1 to 82.1)*6 (6.3)21 (19.4)5.0 (1.7 to 14.8)*
  Seeing042 (22.0)2 (6.9)40 (23.1)6.4 (1.4 to 30.4)*19 (19.8)23 (21.3)2.0 (0.9 to 4.6)
  Intellectual1 (8.3)13 (6.8)2.6 (0.3 to 25.4)3 (10.3)11 (6.4)1.5 (0.3 to 7.1)3 (3.1)11 (10.2)4.2 (1.0 to 17.4)
  Physical3 (25.0)44 (23.0)1.1 (0.2 to 5.1)7 (24.1)40 (23.1)1.5 (0.6 to 4.2)25 (26.0)23 (21.3)1.5 (0.7 to 3.2)
 Severity
  Moderate7 (58.3)152 (79.6)Ref.14 (48.3)145 (83.8)Ref.62 (64.6)97 (89.8)Ref.
  Severe5 (41.7)39 (20.4)0.4 (0.1 to 1.4)15 (51.7)28 (16.2)0.2 (0.1 to 0.4)*34 (35.4)11 (10.2)0.2 (0.1 to 0.3)*
  • *Statistical significance at the 95% confidence level.

  • WASH,  water, sanitation and hygiene.