Table 2

Participant demographic characteristics and residents’ length of time to death as described by the study authors

AuthorsOlder people participantsHealthcare professional participantsInformal carer participantsResidents’ experiences (as observed by others or identified by participants)
nAge in years: mean, range% femalenGenderRolenGenderTime to death
Brayne et al 35 N/AN/AN/A10All women.Care assistants=5,
N/AN/AWithin hours or days of death.
Chan and Kayser-Jones27 34Mean 78.259% female.N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AObserved from when identified as terminally ill until death.
Dwyer et al 31 N/AN/AN/A2016 women,
4 men.
Forbes30 13NR77% female.30NRIncluded social workers, nurses, NAs, administrators and therapists.3NR6/13 residents died during data collection.
Goodridge et al 33 NAN/AN/A22NRNurses=14, healthcare aides=8.4NR72 hours before death.
Kayser-Jones25 117 (observed),
35 (interviewed)
Mean 79,
range 39–101.
54% female.102NRRN, LVN and CNAs=66, physician=36.52NRObserved from when identified as terminally ill until death.
Kayser-Jones et al 26 117 (observed),
35 (interviewed)
Mean 79,
range 39–101.
54% female.102NRNursing staff=66, physicians=36.52Observed 1 day–15 months before death. Mean 45 days.
Vohra et al 34 N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A104NRLast 4 weeks of life.
Whitaker32 ‘About 30’ on ward71–101Approx. 83% female.NRNRNR but included nursing staff.NRNRTerminally ill or in final stages of life.
  • CNA, certified nursing assistants; LVN, liscensed vocational nurse; NA, nursing aide; N/A, not applicable; NR, not recorded; RN, registered nurse.