Table 3

Impoverishment indicators due to households’ total OOP and medicine spending, India, 1993–1994, 2004–2005 and 2011–2012

1993–19942004–20052011–2012Estimated population in millions, (2011–12)
Using national poverty line*
Head count ratio indicators (%)
 Gross head count45.32 (45.03, 45.61)37.85 (37.58, 38.12)22.17 (21.92, 22.43)272
 Head count net of total OOP49.52 (49.22, 49.81)42.68 (42.40, 42.95)26.65 (26.38, 26.92)327
 Total OOP payment induced poverty4.20 (4.07, 4.30)4.83 (4.71, 4.94)4.48 (4.35, 4.60)55
 Head count net of medicine OOP payment48.91 (48.61, 49.20)41.54 (41.27, 41.82)25.27 (25.00, 25.53)310
 Medicine OOP payment induced poverty3.59 (3.47, 3.69)3.69 (3.59, 3.80)3.09 (2.99, 3.20)38
Poverty gap indicators (INR current prices)
 Gross poverty gap†63.3 (62.9, 63.8)103.4 (102.7, 104.2)154.2 (152.3, 156.0)
 Gap net of total OOP payment‡69.7 (69.3, 70.1)115.8 (115.1, 116.5)182.8 (181.0, 184.7)
 Total OOP payment induced gap‡6.4 (6.3, 6.5)12.4 (12.2, 12.6)28.6 (28.0, 29.2)
 Gap net of medicine OOP payment§68.9 (68.5, 69.3)113.7 (113.0, 114.4)176.7 (174.9, 178.5)
 Medicine OOP payment induced gap§5.6 (5.5, 5.7)10.3 (10.1, 10.4)22.5 (22.0, 23.0)
Using international poverty line¶
Head count ratio indicators (%)
 Gross head count40.96 (40.67 to 41.24)33.07 (32.81 to 33.34)18.37 (18.13, 18.61)225
 Head count net of total OOP payment44.92 (44.63, 45.21)37.38 (37.11, 37.65)22.41 (22.16, 22.67)275
 Total OOP payment induced poverty3.97 (3.85, 4.08)4.31 (4.19, 4.42)4.04 (3.92, 4.16)50
 Head count net of medicine OOP payment44.35 (44.06, 44.64)36.34 (36.08, 36.61)21.37 (21.11, 21.62)262
 Medicine OOP payment induced poverty3.39 (3.29, 3.50)3.27 (3.17, 3.68)2.99 (2.89, 3.10)37
Poverty gap indicators (INR current prices)
 Gross poverty gap†59.3 (58.9, 59.7)96.1 (95.3, 96.8)150.7 (148.8, 152.7)
 Gap net of total OOP payment‡65.4 (64.9, 65.8)107.5 (106.8, 108.3)177.0 (175.1, 179.1)
 Total OOP payment induced gap‡6.1 (6.0, 6.2)11.5 (11.2, 11.7)26.3 (25.7, 27.0)
 Gap net of medicine OOP payment§64.6 (64.2, 65.1)105.8 (105.0, 106.5)172.0 (170.0, 174.0)
 Medicine OOP payment induced gap§5.3 (5.2, 5.4)9.7 (9.5, 9.9)21.3 (20.7, 21.8)
  • Figures in   brackets are  95 %   CI .

  • *Based on Tendulkar Committee methods (poverty lines range between INR695 in Odisha and INR1018 in Kerala in rural and INR861 in Odisha and INR1169 in Haryana in urban areas among the major states).

  • †Only for poor.

  • ‡Only for poor net of total OOP.

  • §Only for poor net of medicine OOP.

  • ¶Using US$1.90 PPP at 2011–2012 prices and mixed recall period of household consumption expenditure (INR equivalent to US$1.90 PPP are 771.21 in rural and 945.41 in urban areas).

  • OOP, out of pocket; PPP, purchasing power parity.