Table 5

Studies reporting person-level outcomes

Author, yearOutcomeDefinition/range of the scales (severity)Main effectPerson-level heterogeneity of treatment effect (HTE)
Fixed treatment effectP for person treatment interaction* Treatment effect range (lower range (CI)–upper range (CI))I% (CI)
Camfield,
1996
Nights without awakeningBetween 10:00 PM and 7:00 AM per day0.865 (0.215 to 1.516)0.4560.12 to 2.00 (0 to 79)
Hinderer,
1990
AnxietyBeck Inventory-A anxiety scale 0–3 (0=never, 3=almost all the time)0.000 (0.000 to 0.000)<0.001−6.38 to 0.00091 (81 to 95)
Joy,
2014
Myalgia scoreVisual Analogue Score for myalgia (0=none to 100=worst)3.3812 (−2.668 to 9.430)0.565−11.66 to 60.790 (0 to 68)
Langer,
1993
VomitingNumber of episodes−1.204 (−2.494 to 0.086)0.136−1.34 to 0.1787 (NA)*
Lashner,
1990
Symptom score: abdominal painSymptom scores 0–100 (0=best, 100=worst)−3.615 (−16.982 to 9.751)0.007−35.0 to 15.037 (0 to 73)
Symptom score: bowel movements/day−0.538 (−1.215 to 0.138)0.001−3.0 to 1.056.6 (0 to 81)
Symptom score: consistency of bowel movements7.000 (−7.551 to 21.551)0.013−25.5 to 33.028 (0 to 69)
Symptom score: haematochezia2.308 (−17.210 to 21.826)0.003−38.0 to 47.547 (0 to 78)
Symptom score: general sense of well-being−6.538 (−25.352 to 12.275)0.008−43.0 to 35.035 (0 to 73)
Maier, 
1994
SCL-90 subscales: depressed moodSelf-rating inventory to measure the effects of drug−3.536 (−6.718 to −0.354)<0.001−17.8 to 2.7458 (12 to 80)
SCL-90 subscales: anxiety−3.753 (−6.582 to −0.924)<0.001−17.4 to 2.566 (30 to 83)
SCL-90 subscales: somatisation−1.419 (−4.316 to 1.478)0.869−6.0 to 2.70 (0 to 65)
Mandelcorn,
2004
Self-assessment score0–5 (0=worst, 5=best)−2.052 (−8.865 to 4.761)0.05−7.7 to 4.90 (0 to 85)
Lower extremity ataxiaFugl-Meyer: three point (0 cannot be performed to 2 can be fully performed)12.494 (−3.155 to 28.142)0.025−6.42 to 36.7635 (0 to 77)
Truncal ataxiaAMTI force plate: NR
Berg Balance Scale 0–56, with a higher score indicating a better performance
1.196 (−2.866 to 5.257)0.690−0.52 to 2.200 (0 to 85)
Upper extremity ataxiaPurdue Pegboard Test: pegs inserted into the board with each hand in 30 s
Minnesota Placing Test: reach out, grasp, and place blocks in a specific order
−0.498 (−3.546 to 2.550)0.382−3.68 to 1.420 (0 to 85)
McQuay,
1994
VAS pain Intensity0–100 (0=no pain, 100=worst possible pain)−1.094 (−5.572 to 3.383)0.004−8.0 to 10.10 (0 to 49)
VAS relief Intensity0–100 (0=no relief, 100=complete pain relief)−3.913 (−11.729 to 3.903)0.038−28.4 to 5.150 (0 to 49)
Miyazaki,
1995
Incidence of anginaEither ST segment elevation or depression at rest0.496 (−0.206 to 1.199)0.125−16.19 to 17.110 (0 to 60)
Nathan,
2006
Emetic episodes per dayComplete response (0 episodes/day), major response (1–2 episodes/day) or failure (>2 episodes/day)−0.095 (−0.514 to 0.325)0.001−16.5 to 2.0859 (6 to 82)
Parodi, 
1979
Ischaemic attacksST elevation or depression (details NR)−1.544 (−1.838 to −1.251)0.007−16.21 to −0.3448 (0 to 73)
Parodi, 
1986
Asymptomatic ST elevation (after verapamil)0.1 mV of ST segment elevation measured 20 ms after the J point−1.637 (−1.994  to −1.279)0.110−2.37 to −1.306 (0 to 65)
Asymptomatic ST depression (after verapamil)More than 0.2 mV of ST segment depression measured 80 ms after the J point−1.083 (−1.903 to −0.262)0.401−17.42 to −0.900 (0 to 62)
Symptomatic ST elevation (after verapamil)−1.580 (−1.906 to −1.254)<0.001−15.40 to −1.450 (0 to 62)
Symptomatic ST depression (after verapamil)−0.990 (−1.411 to −0.569)0.002−2.53 to −0.526 (0 to 64)
Asymptomatic ST elevation (after propranolol)0.100 (−0.086 to 0.286)0.006−0.77 to 1.3862 (25 to 81)
Asymptomatic ST depression (after propranolol)0.339 (−0.168 to 0.845)0.964−18.3 to 0.830 (0 to 62)
Symptomatic ST elevation (after propranolol)−0.002 (−0.177 to 0.173)0.063−14.9 to 0.6846 (0 to 74)
Symptomatic ST depression (after propranolol)−0.374 (−0.709 to −0.039)0.023−17.1 to −0.734 (0 to 64)
Pereira,
1995
INRTarget INR range of 2.0–3.0−0.126 (−0.312 to 0.060)0.433−0.42 to 0.160 (0 to 71)
Tison,
2012
Troublesome dyskinesia7 points scale (1=extremely uncomfortable, 7=not at all uncomfortable)0.167 (−0.449 to 0.783)0.593−0.67 to 1.830 (0 to 62)
  • *The significance of person-level HTE was assessed by a likelihood ratio test comparing the two models—model with common treatment effect and model with treatment-by-participant interactions.

  • INR, international normalised ratio; NR, not reported; SCL, Symptom Checklist.