Table 1

Characteristics of the study population number and row percentage of characteristics by polypharmacy among adults with diabetes, Electronic Health Records database, 2016

TotalPolypharmacyNo polypharmacyX2valueSignificance
N%N%N%
Total8932100.0695777.9197522.1
# of medications mean(SD)6.54 (3.50)8.06 (2.97)2.85 (1.14)
Age mean (SD)57.7 (12.12)59.7 (11.3)52.7 (12.68)
Age group517.7***
 18–291982.27437.412462.6
 30–39463–5.225354.621045.4
 40–49122613.783067.739632.3
 50–59317635.6252179.465520.6
 60–69243427.3190978.452521.6
 70–79112612.695184.517515.5
 ≥803093.526987.14012.9
Marital status76.5***
 Single95711.663566.432233.6
 Married731088.4576978.9154121.1
Gender122.8***
 Male337537.8241871.695728.4
 Female555762.2453981.7101818.3
Nationality6.6**
 Saudi795789.4616777.5179022.5
 Non-Saudi94610.676881.217818.8
Chronic kidney disease25.8***
 Yes1461.613995.274.8
 No878698.4681877.6196822.4
Cardiovascular conditions668.1***
 Yes720980.7601583.4119416.6
 No172319.394254.778145.3
Musculoskeletal conditions124.4***
 Yes7878.873793.6506.4
 No814591.2622076.4192523.6
Respiratory conditions76.8***
 Yes96110.885589.010611.0
 No797189.2610276.6186923.4
Mental health conditions27.3***
 Yes7668.665485.411214.6
 No816691.4630377.2186322.8
# Chronic conditions1093.8***
 No coexisting conditions125014.060748.664351.4
 Single coexisting condition284931.9201870.883129.2
> 2  coexisting conditions483354.1433289.650110.4
  • Study population comprised 8932 adults with diabetes (age >18 years) who visited outpatient’s clinics from a tertiary hospital in 2016. Polypharmacy was defined as the cumulative use of five or more medications during the 1-year period.

  • #,   Number.

  • Asterisks (*) represent significant differences in polypharmacy from X2 tests.

  • *P<0.001, **0.001<P<0.01.