Table 1

Baseline characteristics according to the degree of secondhand smoke exposure.

VariablesWomenP valuesMenP values
Secondhand smoke exposureSecondhand smoke exposure
None<2 hour/day≥2 hour/dayNone<2 hour/day≥2 hour/day
% of total68.124.27.753.339.47.2
Age (years)49.6±0.342.9±0.445.2±0.6<0.001*41.7±0.737.4±0.640.2±1.4<0.001*
Weight (kg)57.5±0.257.5±0.359.2±0.5<0.001*70.1±0.571.4±0.672.7±1.40.032*
Height (cm)156.6±0.1157.9±0.2157.8±0.3<0.001*171.4±0.3172.2±0.3170.6±0.80.783
Waist circumference (cm)78.7±0.276.9±0.378.9±0.50.009*82.9±0.483.0±0.584.8±1.10.231
Body mass index (kg/m2)23.5±0.123.1±0.123.8±0.20.53623.8±0.124.1±0.224.9±0.40.021*
Blood pressure (mm Hg)
 Systole117.5±0.3113.5±0.5117.7±0.9<0.001*119.3±0.6118.9±0.6120.8±1.70.740
 Diastole74.0±0.273.6±0.375.7±0.50.08277.9±0.479.9±0.579.9±1.10.005*
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)190.4±0.7186.5±1.0192.9±1.80.453183.±1.6182.7±1.8186.5±3.80.666
High density lipoprotein (mg/dL)55.2±0.355.6±0.657.7±1.10.06851.0±0.950.3±1.250.4±2.50.583
Triglyceride (mg/dL)115.0±1.8104.7±1.9112.2±4.40.016*121.8±3.5129.6±4.7121.4±7.20.339
Fasting glucose (mg/dL)95.9±0.493.6±0.595.1±0.90.008*96.6±0.995.7±0.896.6±1.80.658
Hypertension29.319.325.9<0.001*25.222.030.60.197
Diabetes mellitus14.89.810.0<0.001*10.09.213.10.527
Metabolic syndrome25.617.018.8<0.001*23.220.212.90.325
Alcohol intake
 Never drinker21.711.218.5<0.001 *11.37.37.4<0.001*
 Former drinker18.013.916.513.56.15.9
 Light drinker (≤1/week)53.966.857.356.766.553.8
 Moderate drinker (2–3/week)5.17.16.213.916.522.4
 Heavy drinker (≥4/week)1.31.01.54.73.610.5
Marital status88.876.984.1<0.001*58.059.059.00.955
Educational level
 Below middle school30.418.226.8<0.001*9.92.97.7<0.001*
 Middle school9.89.910.26.26.49.0
 High school29.839.933.143.040.347.6
 Above high school30.131.930.040.950.535.8
Socioeconomic status
 1Q25.325.327.30.14430.221.830.50.116
 2Q26.825.721.221.224.420.0
 3Q25.325.923.725.625.526.8
 4Q22.623.127.923.028.322.7
Occupation
 Manager or professional11.015.611.8<0.001*21.828.612.5<0.001*
 Office worker5.014.313.37.615.515.6
 Service9.022.342.47.115.013.8
 Farmer worker or fisherman6.05.65.07.66.21.3
 Technician2.34.84.29.121.539.5
 Labour worker8.012.811.65.35.89.2
 Unemployed (outside house)58.824.717.441.67.68.2
  • The data were presented as mean±SE in continuous variables and % in categorical variables.

  • **P<0.05.