Table 1

China Patient-centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events 5 Retrospective Heart  Failure Study (PEACE 5r-HF) data elements

CategoryExample elements
Patient demographicsAge, sex, ethnicity, insurance status and smoking status
Medical historyMyocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus and stroke
Clinical characteristics at admissionNYHA, heart rate, blood pressure, rales and oedema
ComorbiditiesCoronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, hypertension, valvular heart disease, COPD, anaemia and cancer
Precipitating factorsArrhythmia, ischaemia, respiratory process, pneumonia, uncontrolled hypertension, and non-compliance diet or medicine
Laboratory valuesCreatinine, sodium, potassium, haemoglobin, BNP and troponin
Medications prior to admission, and during hospitalisation (including dose)ACEI/ARB, β-blocker, aldosterone antagonists, diuretics, digoxin, anticoagulants and traditional Chinese medicine
In-hospital proceduresICD, CRT, pacemaker, PCI and LVAD
Diagnostic procedure resultsEchocardiogram (LVEF, size of chambers, pulmonary hypertension, valvular stenosis or regurgitation), chest X-ray and ECG
In-hospital outcomesTotal charge, death, shock, stroke, bleeding, myocardial infarction, length of stay and ICU/CCU duration
Plans at hospital dischargeMedications, diet, weight monitoring and follow-up visit
  • ACEI, ACE inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; BNP, brain natriuretic peptide; CCU, cardiac care unit; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CRT, cardiac resynchronisation therapy; ICD, implantable cardioverter defibrillators; ICU, intensive care unit; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; NYHA, New York Heart Association; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention.