Table 3

Risks of all-cause mortality according to MUAC and CC tertiles using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses

Tertile (n)Deaths (n)7-year mortality rate per 1000 person-yearsAll-cause mortality HR (95% CI)
Model IModel IIModel IIIModel IV
MUAC†
 I96329.521.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 II84206.910.62 (0.46 to 0.83)**0.66 (0.49 to 0.90)**0.74 (0.54 to 1.00)0.74 (0.54 to 1.02)
 III75162.400.48 (0.35 to 0.65)**0.55 (0.40–0.75)**0.61 (0.44–0.85)**0.64 (0.45–0.90)*
CC‡
 I94359.311.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 II81205.910.55 (0.41 to 0.75)**0.56 (0.42–0.76)**0.59 (0.43–0.80)**0.62 (0.45–0.86)**
 III80158.680.42 (0.31 to 0.57)**0.46 (0.34–0.62)**0.49 (0.34–0.70)**0.51 (0.35–0.74)**
  • Model I: unadjusted.

  • Model II: adjusted for age and sex.

  • Model III: Model II+adjusted for smoking, alcohol, betel nut and Karnofsky Performance Status Scale.

  • Model IV: Model III+adjusted for albumin, hypertension and diabetes mellitus.

  • *P<0.05; **P<0.01.

  • †MUAC was divided by sex and into quantitative tertiles: <22.9, 22.9–25.6, ≥25.7 cm in men; <22.8, 22.8–25.4, ≥25.5 cm in women.

  • ‡CC was divided by sex and into quantitative tertiles: <26.0, 26.0–29.9, ≥30.0 cm in men; <25.0, 25.0–28.3, ≥28.4 cm in women.

  • CC, calf circumference; MUAC, mid-upper arm circumference.