Table 1

Cohort characteristics according to mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) tertiles

CharacteristicsMUAC tertileP values
I (n=109)II (n=110)III (n=110)
Male, n (%)46 (42.2)46 (41.8)47 (42.7)0.991
Age, year81.4±7.278.0±7.976.3±7.6<0.001
Height, cm151.8±7.4152.1±8.1154.1±7.90.069
Weight, kg42.4±6.951.0±9.059.2±9.8<0.001
BMI, kg/m2 18.4±3.122.0±3.524.9±3.5<0.001
Resting energy expenditure, kcal/d930.3±151.01061.5±188.31190.1±196.0<0.001
Waist circumference, cm74.4±6.882.5±8.690.6±9.8<0.001
Mid-upper arm circumference, cm20.6±1.724.1±0.827.8±2.2<0.001
Calf circumference, cm24.1±2.927.8±3.330.5±4.0<0.001
Systolic BP, mm Hg123.7±13.9124.3±15.1126.4±14.60.348
Diastolic BP, mm Hg73.6±9.774.8±11.675.9±10.90.279
Total cholesterol, mg/dL174.1±43.5167.5±40.4185.7±41.10.005
Triglycerides, ng/dL86.8±61.1103.5±65.0149.2±306.40.036
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol56.8±15.350.4±13.349.4±10.9<0.001
Albumin, g/dL3.04±0.473.23±0.403.34±0.42<0.001
Karnofsky Performance Status Scale score >60%, n (%)13 (12.4)22 (20.6)33 (29.5)0.008
Diabetes mellitus, n (%)17 (15.6)40 (37.0)44 (39.3)<0.001
Hypertension, n (%)55 (50.5)67 (62.0)70 (62.5)0.123
Smoking, n (%)0.187
 Current1 (1.0)3 (2.8)4 (3.6)
 Former10 (9.5)20 (18.7)19 (17.0)
 Never94 (89.5)84 (78.5)89 (79.5)
Betel nut, n (%)0.158
 Current0 (0)1 (0.9)1 (0.9)
 Former1 (0.9)4 (3.7)7 (6.3)
 Never104 (99.1)102 (95.3)104 (93.0)
Alcohol, n (%)0.272
 Current1 (0.9)1 (0.9)2 (1.8)
 Former5 (4.7)13 (12.1)12 (10.7)
 Never99 (94.3)93 (86.9)98 (87.5)
  • The Pearson Χ2 test was used for categorical data.

  • Analysis of variance was used for comparing mean values of continuous variables between groups.

  • Statistics were tested using log-transformed values.

  • BP, blood pressure.