Table 2

Cohort characteristics according to calf circumference (CC) tertiles

CharacteristicsCC tertileP values
 I (n=105)II (n=117)III (n=107)
Male, n (%)45 (42.9)50 (42.7)44 (41.1)0.959
Age, year80.3±8.079.2±7.376.3±7.6<0.001
Height, cm151.6±7.8152.2±7.3154.3±8.20.030
Weight, kg42.2±7.350.5±8.060.3±9.4<0.001
BMI, kg/m2 18.4±3.221.4±3.025.2±3.6<0.001
Resting energy expenditure, kcal/d931.3±158.71045.2±176.71205.6±192.7<0.001
Waist circumference, cm75.5±8.581.4±8.090.7±10.0<0.001
Mid-upper arm circumference, cm21.6±2.824.1±2.326.7±3.0<0.001
Calf circumference, cm22.8±1.927.0±1.332.1±2.6<0.001
Systolic BP, mm Hg124.8±13.8123.5±14.3126.2±15.40.386
Diastolic BP, mm Hg74.4±11.174.2±9.075.8±12.20.479
Total cholesterol, mg/dL170.0±41.2173.0±41.7184.7±42.70.026
Triglycerides, ng/dL90.0±53.9101.8±76.1149.1±310.70.048
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol53.3±15.053.5±14.549.6±10.70.058
Albumin, g/dL2.96±0.453.25±0.393.40±0.39<0.001
Karnofsky Performance Status Scale score >60%, n (%)5 (5.0)17 (16.0)46 (39.3)<0.001
Diabetes mellitus, n (%)18 (17.1)39 (36.5)44 (37.6)0.001
Hypertension, n (%)58 (55.2)61 (57.0)73 (62.4)0.526
Smoking, n (%)0.016
 Current0 (0)4 (3.8)4 (3.4)
 Former12 (11.9)11 (10.4)26 (22.2)
 Never89 (88.1)91 (85.9)87 (74.4)
Betel nut, n (%)0.017
 Current0 (0)0 (0)2 (1.7)
 Former2 (2.0)1 (0.9)9 (7.7)
 Never99 (98.0)105 (99.1)106 (90.6)
Alcohol, n (%)0.150
 Current0 (0)2 (1.9)2 (1.7)
 Former6 (6.0)8 (7.6)16 (13.7)
 Never95 (94.0)96 (90.6)99 (84.6)
  • The Pearson Χ test was used for categorical data.

  • Analysis of variance was used for comparing mean values of continuous variables between groups.

  • Statistics were tested using log-transformed values.

  • BP, blood pressure.