Table 5

Studies of association between fasting insulin and metabolic syndrome

AuthorsStudy yearStudy population% MetSFasting insulinRisk of MetSMain findingReference
Saravia G et al 2009 to 2010
3200 non-diabetic males in Spain23Highest tertile (≥6.13) versus lowest (≤3.80) μU/mLOR (95% CI) 11.36 (8.65 to 15.13) for MetSPer each 10 pmol/L (1.4 uU/mL) increase in insulin, the odds for metabolic syndrome increased by 1.43 (95%CI: 1.38 to 1.49) 20
Rutter MK et al (1991 to 1995) to (1998 to 2001)
7-year prospective
2616 non-diabetic adults in Europe1-quintile change in fasting insulin (pmol/L)mean (95% CI)
0.12 (0.10 to 0.15)
(MetS trait score 7- year change)
Change in metabolic trait clustering was significantly associated with baseline levels and changes in fasting insulin. 36
Sung KC et al 2003 to 2008
5-year cohort
2350 non-MetS in Korea8.5 (incidence)Highest quartile (≥8.98) versus lowest (≤6.01) IU/mlOR (95% CI) of developing MS 5.1 (3.1 to 8.2)The highest quartile of the insulin levels had more than a five times greater risk of developing MS compared with the participants in the lowest quartile. 19
Kanda H et al 2000, 2001
456 in Mongolia6.4Highest tertile (≥10.33) versus lowest (≤6.72) mmol/LPercentage of MetS
17.1% versus 4.6%
Fasting plasma insulin is associated with MetS in farmers, but not nomads among the Mongolian population in China. 25
STOPP-T2D PSG* 20082003
1453 eighth grade adolescents in the USA.9.5Highest quintile (≥39.1) versus lowest (≤17.0) μU/mLOR (95% CI) 199.64 (31.29 to 1273.7) for MetSThe highest insulin quintile was almost 200 times more likely to be classified with the metabolic syndrome than participants in the lowest quintile. 26
Adam FM et al 2005
128 overweight/obese in Indonesia68.8Mean fasting insulin levels 15.68±7.85 versus 3.16±2.53 (uU/ml) with five components versus one component of MetS.There is a strong linear increase in fasting insulin levels with an increase in the number of metabolic syndrome. 27
  • *STOPP-T2D PSG: Studies to Treat or Prevent Paediatric Type 2 Diabetes Prevention Study Group.

  • Mets and MS, Metabolic syndrome.