Table 2

The association between sleep duration categories, FV intakes and their biomarkers of adults from the NDNS years 1–4

SS (<7 hours/day) and LS (>8 hours/day) compared with the reference group (7–8 hours/day)
ModelsModel 1 (n=1612)Model 2 (n=1610)
SS <7 hours/dayLS >8 hours/daySS <7 hours/dayLS >8 hours/day
Mean difference (95% CI)P valuesMean difference (95% CI)P valuesMean difference (95% CI)P valuesMean difference (95% CI)P values
FV intake
 Total fruit* (g/day)−19 (−31 to –8)0.001−24 (−38 to –10)0.001−13 (−24 to –2)0.01−16 (−30 to –2)0.01
 Total vegetable† (g/day)−17 (−29 to –5)0.004−19 (−34 to –4)0.009−10 (−21 to 0.5)0.06−11 (−25 to 2)0.09
 FV portions‡−0.4 (−0.6 to –0.2)<0.001−0.5 (−0.8 to –0.1)0.001−0.2 (−0.5 to –0.05)0.01−0.2 (−0.5 to –0.01)0.04
 5-a-day portions§−0.4 (−0.7 to –0.2)<0.001−0.5 (−0.8 to–0.1)0.002−0.2 (−0.5 to –0.06)0.01−0.2 (−0.5 to 0.01)0.06
 Total FV¶(g/day)−37 (−56 to –18)<0.001−44 (−67 to –20)<0.001−24 (−41 to –6)0.006−28 (−50 to –6)0.01
Nutrients (mg/dL)
 Vitamin C diet only−9 (−16 to –2)0.01−10 (−19 to –1)0.02−5 (−12 to 1)0.1−4 (−12 to 4)0.3
 Vitamin C **−13 (−27 to 0.8)0.06−21 (−39 to –3)0.01−7 (−21 to 6)0.2−12 (−30 to 5)0.1
Biomarkers (µmol/L)
 Vitamin C−4 (−8 to –1)0.0063 (−1 to 7)0.1−2 (−6 to 0.3)0.074 (0.1 to 8)0.04
 Total carot††−0.2 (−0.4 to –0.1)0.002−0.1(−0.3 to 0.1)0.3−0.2 (−0.4 to –0.08)0.004−0.06 (−0.2 to 0.1)0.5
 α-carotene−0.01 (−0.02 to 0.003)0.1−0.009 (−0.02 to 0.007)0.2−0.006 (−0.01 to 0.007)0.3−0.004 (−0.02 to 0.01)0.6
 β-carotene−0.07 (−0.1 to −0.02)0.003−0.01 (−0.07 to 0.05)0.7−0.05 (−0.1 to −0.009)0.010.009 (−0.05 to 0.07)0.7
 Lycopene−0.1 (−0.1 to –0.04)0.001−0.06 (−0.1 to 0.01)0.09−0.08 (−0.1 to –0.02)0.005−0.05 (−0.1 to 0.02)0.1
  • Model 1 adjusted for age and sex.

  • Model 2 adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, smoking, ethnicity and food energy.

  • *Total fruit (not including juice)=fruit (g)+dried fruit (g)+smoothie fruit (g).

  • †Total vegetables=beans (g)+Brassicaceae (g)+other vegetables (g)+tomatoes (g)+tomato puree (g)+yellow red green (g).

  • ‡FV portions=(Fruit (g)+dried fruitx3_mean+tompureex5 mean+beans max mean+Brassicaceae (g)+yellow red green (g)+other vegetables (g)+tomatoes (g))/80.

  • §5-a-day portions(portions/day)=FV portions+fruit juice portions+smoothie fruit portions.

  • ¶Total FV (not including juice)=total fruit+total vegetables.

  • **Vitamin C including supplements.

  • ††Total carotenoids=Lutein+ alpha-cryptoxanthin+beta-cryptoxanthin+lycopene+alpha-carotene+beta-carotene.

  • FV, fruits and vegetables; LS, long sleepers; NDNS, National Diet and Nutrition Survey; SS, short sleepers.