Table 2

OR for women with a weak SOC who completed the HLEQ questionnaire in 1996–2000 (women with weak SOC sample size=2991)

CharacteristicOR and 95% CIP value for model C
UnadjustedModel A*Model B†Model C‡
Sociodemographics
 Age (years)
  <652.63 (1.72 to 4.00)3.35 (2.10 to 5.34)2.49 (1.54 to 4.02)2.67 (1.65 to 4.32)<0.0001
  ≥651.001.001.001.00
 Education§
   Low0.73 (0.52 to 1.00)0.77 (0.55 to 1.08)0.83 (0.58 to 1.17)0.83 (0.58 to 1.17)0.287
   High1.001.001.001.00
 Marital status
   Married1.001.001.001.00
  Not married¶0.98 (0.69 to 1.38)1.06 (0.74 to 1.51)0.86 (0.59 to 1.25)0.85 (0.59 to 1.23)0.392
 Social class**
   Manual0.83 (0.60 to 1.15)0.81 (0.58 to 1.15)0.83 (0.59 to 1.18)0.81 (0.57 to 1.15)0.231
  Non-manual1.001.001.001.00
 Employed
   Yes1.001.001.001.00
   No0.95 (0.69 to 1.31)1.55 (1.09 to 2.19)1.42 (0.99 to 2.04)1.33 (0.92 to 1.91)0.126
Townsend Index
 Deprivation
   Yes (>0)1.82 (1.28 to 2.61)2.05 (1.43 to 2.94)1.97 (1.35 to 2.88)1.99 (1.37 to 2.91)0.0004
   No (≤0)1.001.001.001.00
Health status
 Lifetime MDD
   Yes5.77 (4.15 to 8.03)5.20 (3.68 to 7.34)5.06 (3.58 to 7.15)<0.0001
   No1.001.001.00
 Prevalent physical disease††
   Yes1.36 (0.98 to 1.88)1.20 (0.84 to 1.70)0.316
   No1.001.00
 Disability level
  High‡‡1.45 (1.04 to 2.01)1.50 (1.04 to 2.15)0.030
   Low1.001.00
  • *Adjusted for sociodemographics (age, education, marital status, social class, employment).

  • †Adjusted for sociodemographics, lifetime MDD.

  • ‡Adjusted for sociodemographics, lifetime MDD, prevalent physical disease and disability.

  • §High education: O-level, A-level, degree; low education: refers to no education.

  • ¶Not married: single, divorced, separated, widowed.

  • **Manual: skilled manual, semi-skilled, non-skilled; non-manual: professionals, managerial, skilled non-manual.

  • ††Prevalent physical disease: respiratory disease (asthma, bronchitis), allergies (allergies, hay fever), stroke, heart attack, cancer, diabetes, thyroid conditions, arthritis.

  • ‡‡Below the median PCS value of 50.6.

  • HLEQ, Health and Life Experiences Questionnaire; MDD, major depressive disorder; PCS, physical component summary score; SOC, sense of coherence.