Table 4

Maternal characteristics and perinatal outcomes for women who disclosed IPV at the first booking visit compared with those who have not

IPV reported, n=1302IPV not reported, n=29 026P values
Maternal age*28.7 (5.46)28.6 (6.07)0.29
Body mass index*26.6 (6.54)27.1 (7.17)<0.001
Multiparous82.7%68.8%<0.001
Smoking26.8%11.0%<0.001
Hypertension diagnosed in pregnancy1.5%2.4%0.04
Gestational diabetes9.4%8.6%0.96
Threatened premature labour5.5%3.1%<0.001
Any Antepartum haemorrhage2.22%1.55%0.08
Antenatal admission10.8%8.6%0.006
Gestation at birth†39.2 (1.96)39.1 (1.90)0.12
Birth type
 Normal vaginal birth66.7 %61.6 %<0.001
 Instrumental birth7.0 %10.9 %<0.001
 Caesarean section26.3 %27.5 %<0.001
Epidural usage‡29.7%28.3%0.36
Third-degree and fourth-degree tears‡0.46%1.3%0.01
Episiotomy‡18.8%25.5%0.05
Postpartum blood transfusion1.08%0.83%0.94
Birth weight*3349 (568.0)3344 (573.6)0.77
Admitted to special care nursery/neonatal intensive care unit8.6%8.5%0.88
Stillbirth rate/1000 births3.95.40.49
Feeding difficulty38.6%39.6%0.49
Male gender51.0%51.3%0.88
Fetal growth restriction6.5%4.8%0.03
  • *Mean, SD and t-test.

  • †Median, IQR, Mann-Whitney U.

  • ‡As a % of vaginal births.

  • IPV, intimate partner violence.