Table 4

Determinants associated with global health status and/or overall well-being

Determinants studiedBetter global health status (GHS)/overall well-being (OWB)Poorer GHS/OWBOthers
Demographic
Time since diagnosis/surgery/
treatment/enrolment:
GHS – CS: refs 48, 50 and 67
GHS – L: refs 41, 46, 47 and 78
OWB – CS: refs 43, 44, 51, 55, 74 and 95
OWB – L: refs 56 and 105
Longer time since diagnosis:
GHS – CS: refs 39, 47, 48 and 50
GHS – L: ref 46
OWB – L: ref 56
12 months versus at time of diagnosis:
GHS – L: ref 41
Longer time since treatment:
OWB – CS: ref 55
Time since diagnosis (<11.9 months) < (≥24 months) < (12–23.9 months):
OWB – CS: ref 43
Ethnicity:
GHS – CS: refs 21, 48 and 53
Malay<Chinese<Indian:
GHS – CS: ref 48
Malay>Indian
GHS – CS: ref 21
Chinese>Indian
GHS – CS: ref 21
Education:
GHS – CS: refs 21 and 49
OWB – CS: refs 43, 44, 51, 55, 71 and 95
(Higher) Education:
GHS – CS: refs 21 and 49
OWB – CS: ref 95
Primary school or less<middle/high school<college or more:
OWB – CS: ref 43
Year of diagnosis:
GHS – CS: ref 54
Year of diagnosis:
GHS – CS: ref 54
Older age:
GHS – CS: refs 21, 48, 58 and 60
GHS – L: refs 46 and 47
OWB – CS: refs 42–45, 51, 52, 55, 71, 74 and 95
OWB – L: ref 105
Older age:
GHS – CS: ref 48
GHS – L: refs 46 and 47
OWB – CS: refs 42–45
Employment:
GHS – CS: refs 48 and 49
OWB – CS: refs 43, 44, 51, 55, 71 and 95
Employed (yes):
OWB – CS: ref 95
Employed>retired>housewife:
GHS – CS: ref 48
Working in public sector>private sector>farmers/unemployed:
OWB – CS: ref 43
Income:
GHS – CS: refs 21 and 48–50
OWB – CS: refs 43 and 52
(Higher) Income:
GHS – CS: refs 48 and 50
OWB – CS: refs 43 and 52
(Higher) Income:
GHS – CS: ref 21
Marital status:
GHS – CS: refs 21, 48, 49 and 60
OWB – CS: refs 43, 44, 51, 71 and 95
Widowed/divorced<married<unmarried
GHS – CS: ref 48
Single<married
GHS – CS: ref 21
Married<single/
divorced/separated/widowed:
GHS – CS: ref 49
Religion:
GHS – CS: ref 67
GHS – L: ref 92
OWB – CS: ref 95
Presence of religion:
GHS – CS: ref 67
Higher intrinsic religiosity at 1 year postsurgery
GHS – L: ref 92
Comorbidity:
GHS – CS: refs 50, 67 and 73
GHS – L: ref 46
OWB – CS: refs 44 and 51
OWB – L: ref 64
Comorbidity (yes):
GHS – CS: refs 50 and 67
Diabetes mellitus (yes):
GHS – CS: ref 73
(Higher) Charlson comorbidity index:
GHS – L: ref 46
GHS – CS:
Type 1 <no diabetes mellitus:
GHS – CS: ref 73
Type 2 <no diabetes mellitus:
GHS – CS: ref 73
Clinical
Tumour stage:
GHS – CS: refs 21, 48–50 and 58
GHS – L: ref 46
OWB – CS: refs 43, 51, 52, 55 and 74
(Higher) stage:
GHS – CS: refs 48 and 50:
OWB – CS: ref 52
Metastatic disease:
GHS – CS: ref 58
Stage 3/4 versus 0/1:
GHS – L: ref 46
Recurrence:
GHS – CS: ref 50
OWB – CS: ref 95
Recurrence (yes):
OWB – CS: ref 95
Treatment
(Type of surgery)
BCS versus TM:
GHS – CS: refs 48, 49 and 59–61
GHS – L: refs 38, 46 and 47
OWB – CS: refs 43, 44 and 63
OWB – L: ref 64
BCS versus mastectomy with reconstruction (TM-R):
GHS – CS: refs 47 and 61
OWB – CS: ref 95
BCS versus TM versus TM-R
GHS – CS: ref 62
OWB – CS: ref 55
TM (yes):
OWB – L: ref 105
BCS>TM:
GHS – CS: refs 48, 59 and 60
Chemotherapy
GHS – CS: refs 21, 48 and 58
GHS – L: refs 37, 40, 46 and 47
OWB – CS: refs 43, 44, 52 and 55
OWB – L: refs 64 and 105
Chemotherapy (yes):
GHS – CS: ref 48
GHS – L: refs 46 and 47
OWB – CS: ref 43
Chemotherapy on schedule<postponed:
GHS – CS: ref 21
At cycle 1>3>6:
GHS – L: ref 40
Chemotherapy (yes)<no (compared at 6 months)
OWB – L: ref 64
Radiotherapy:
GHS – CS: refs 48, 58 and 96
GHS – L: refs 46, 47 and 97
OWB – CS: ref 55
Radiotherapy (yes):
GHS – L: refs 46 and 47
Radiotherapy (yes):
GHS – CS: ref 48
Hormone therapy:
GHS – CS: refs 48 and 58
GHS – L: refs 46 and 47
OWB – CS: refs 44, 51 and 55
OWB – L: ref 64
Hormone therapy (yes):
GHS – L: refs 46 and 47
OWB – CS: ref 51
Hormone therapy (yes)
GHS – CS: ref 48
Immune therapy:
GHS – CS: ref 48
Immune therapy (yes):
GHS – CS: ref 48
Treatment combination: (surgery (S), chemotherapy (C), radiotherapy (R), hormone therapy (H), targeted therapy (T)):
GHS – CS: ref 50
C>S+C+H > S+C+R+H+T>S+C>others>S+R+ hour>S+C+R+ hour>S+C+R > S+H:
GHS – CS: ref 50
Treatment status:
GHS – CS: refs 49 and 67
Treatment status (incomplete):
GHS – CS: ref 67
Post-treatment>ongoing treatment=non-treatment:
GHS – CS: ref 67
Lifestyle
Exercise:
GHS – CS: refs 69 and 95
OWB – CS: ref 69
Exerciser (yes):
GHS and OWB – CS: ref 69
(Higher) Frequency of exercise:
GHS and OWB – CS: ref 69
Diet:
GHS and OWB – CS: ref 69
(Higher) Vegetable intake:
GHS and OWB – CS: ref 69
Daily fruit intake (yes):
GHS and OWB – CS: ref 69
Healthy behaviour:
GHS and OWB – CS: ref 69
(More) Healthy behaviour:
GHS and OWB – CS: ref 69
Unmet needs
Short-form Supportive Care Needs Survey (SCNS) – psychological, physical and daily living, sexuality, health system and information, care and support:
GHS – CS: refs 48 and 70
OWB – CS: refs 51 and 71
(Higher) Scores for sexuality:
OWB – CS: ref 71
(Higher) Scores in all domains:
GHS – CS: ref 70
OWB – CS: ref 51
(Higher) Scores for psychological, physical and daily living:
GHS – CS: ref 48
OWB – CS: ref 71
(Higher) Scores for care and support:
GHS – CS: ref 48
Others
Complementary and complementary medicine:
GHS – CS: refs 21, 22 and 58
OWB – CS: ref 43
Traditional Chinese medication (yes):
OWB – CS: ref 43
Cosmetic appearance:
GHS – CS: ref 61
OWB – CS: ref 98
(Better) Subjectively measured cosmetic appearance:
GHS – CS: ref 61
Symptom distress:
GHS – CS: ref 54
OWB – CS: ref 75
Symptom distress:
GHS – CS: ref 54
OWB – CS: ref 75
Involvement in decision making:
GHS – CS: refs 67 and 72
Involvement in decision making (yes):
GHS – CS: refs 67 and 72
Reflection of own value to decision:
GHS – CS: ref 72
Reflection of own value to decision (yes):
GHS – CS: ref 72
Problem obtaining surgery:
GHS – CS: ref 72
Problem obtaining surgery (yes):
GHS – CS: ref 72
Problems before surgery:
GHS – CS: ref 67
Problems before surgery (yes):
GHS – CS: ref 67
Experience of treatment toxicity:
GHS – CS: ref 72
Experience of treatment toxicity (yes):
GHS – CS: ref 72
Hospitalisation with treatment toxicity:
GHS – CS: ref 72
Hospitalisation with treatment toxicity (yes):
GHS – CS: ref 72
Time needed to travel from home to hospital:
OWB – CS: ref 51
(Longer) Time needed to travel from home to hospital:
OWB – CS: ref 51
Perceived overall medical care:
GHS – CS: ref 67
(Better) Perceived overall medical care:
GHS – CS: ref 67
Preoperative quality of life score:
GHS – L: ref 47
(Higher) Preoperative quality of life score:
GHS – L: ref 47
Sexual activity/function:
OWB – CS: ref 52
(Higher) Frequency of sexual activity:
OWB – CS: ref 52
(Higher) Sexual function:
OWB – CS: ref 52
Experiencing menopausal symptoms:
OWB – CS: ref 52
Experiencing menopausal symptoms:
OWB – CS: ref 52
Symptom management self-efficacy:
GHS – CS: ref 54
Symptom management self-efficacy:
GHS – CS: ref 54
Insurance:
OWB – CS: ref 43
URBMI/NRCMS<UEBMI health insurance<undefined:
OWB – CS: ref 43
Optimism:
OWB – CS: ref 75
(Higher) Optimism:
OWB – CS: ref 75
Positive mood:
OWB – L: ref 56
Positive mood:
OWB – L: ref 56
Boredom:
OWB – L: ref 56
(Higher) Levels of boredom:
OWB – L: ref 56
Appraisal of illness:
OWB – CS: ref 75
(Higher) Scores for appraisal of illness (ie, more stress):
OWB – CS: ref 75
Post-traumatic growth:
OWB – CS: ref 74
(Higher) Post-traumatic growth:
OWB – CS: ref 74
Adverse childhood event:
OWB – CS: ref 74
More adverse childhood event:
OWB – CS: ref 74
Locus of control:
OWB – CS: ref 76
(Higher) Internal locus of control:
OWB – CS: ref 76
(Higher) External locus of control:
OWB – CS: ref 76
(Higher) Score on powerful others:
OWB – CS: ref 77
(Higher) Score on chance:
OWB – CS: ref 77
Coping mode:
OWB – CS: refs 75 and 77
Active emotional coping:
OWB – CS: ref 77
Affront coping mode>give in coping mode:
OWB – CS: ref 75
Empowerment:
OWB – CS: ref 95
Empowerment (yes):
OWB – CS: ref 95
Family harmony status:
OWB – CS: ref 43
(Good) family harmony status:
OWB – CS: ref 43
Interaction with friends/neighbours:
OWB – CS: ref 43
Interaction with friends/neighbours:
OWB – CS: ref 43
Participation in healing club:
OWB – CS: ref 43
Participation in healing club:
OWB – CS: ref 43
Participation in peer-patient activities and communication:
OWB – CS: ref 43:
Participation in peer-patient activities and communication:
OWB – CS: ref 43
Social support:
OWB – CS: refs 43 and 101
(Higher) Score on Perceived Social Support Scale:
OWB – CS: ref 43
Satisfaction with family support:
OWB – CS: ref 52
Satisfaction with family support:
OWB – CS: ref 52
  • BCS, breast-conserving surgery; CS, cross-sectional study; L, longitudinal study; NRCMS, New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme health insurance; TM, mastectomy; UEBMI, Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance; URBMI, Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance.