Table 3

Univariable associations of risk markers with postural hypotension in derivation cohort

Variable (n (%) unless otherwise stated)PH absent (n=542)PH present (n=107)P value
Age (mean, SD)67.7 (15.8)72.2 (14.6)0.005
Age over 60438 (81)96 (90)0.027
Age over 65421 (78)90 (84)0.160
Age over 70302 (56)73 (68)0.018
MMSE score (mean, SD)25.3 (4.9)24.1 (5.1)0.031
Female gender301 (55.5)67 (62.6)0.200
ACE inhibitors103 (19)23 (22)0.552
Angiotensin-2 antagonists6 (1)4 (4)0.066
Calcium channel blockers62 (11)15 (14)0.451
Diuretics48 (9)17 (16)0.027
Beta-blockers20 (4)4 (4)0.981
Alpha-blockers11 (2)1 (1)0.442
Aldosterone antagonists2 (0.4)0 (0)0.529
Digoxin27 (5)14 (13)0.004
Antiarrhythmics, class I and III10 (2)4 (4)0.264
Psycholeptics: typical antipsychotics8 (1)4 (4)0.119
Psycholeptics: atypical antipsychotics6 (1)1 (1)1.000
Psycholeptics: anxiolytics103 (19)18 (17)0.684
Psychoanaleptics: antidepressants22 (4)5 (5)0.791
Drugs for dementia5 (1)0 (0)1.000
Hypertension217 (40)62 (58)0.001
Congestive heart failure22 (4)10 (9)0.028
Myocardial infarction23 (4)6 (6)0.607
Angina21 (4)7 (6)0.421
Any CV disease45 (8)18 (17)0.011
Stroke28 (5)16 (15)0.001
Diabetes64 (12)16 (15)0.420
Parkinson’s disease4 (1)5 (5)0.008
Any cancer30 (6)8 (8)0.497
Dementia29 (5)9 (8)0.257
MMSE score 22 to 26150 (28)27 (25)0.637
Hospital admission in past year54 (10)18 (17)0.044
Weight loss >4.5Kg in past year22 (4)7 (6)0.301
Any fall in past year115 (21)28 (26)0.254
Any ADL disability100 (19)28 (26)0.083
WHO disability level >166 (12)24 (23)0.045
Systolic blood pressure (mean, SD) mm Hg144.3 (20.1)153.7 (25.3)<0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mean, SD) mm Hg82.2 (8.8)86.2 (8.1)<0.001
Systolic interarm difference (mean, SD) mm Hg2.0 (4.1)4.7 (5.9)<0.001
Systolic interarm BP difference ≥10 mm Hg81 (15)40 (37)<0.001
Systolic interarm BP difference ≥15 mm Hg10 (2)6 (6)0.007
  • P values derived from t-tests for continuous data or Pearson χ2 for categorical data; Fisher’s exact test reported where expected cell count <5.

  • ADL, activities of daily living; BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; CV. cardiovascular; MMSE, Mini Mental State Examination; PH, postural hypotension.