Table 2

Characteristics of the interventions

AuthorsCharacteristics of the auditWho performed the auditWho developed the recommendationsType of cases auditedSelection criteriaN case audited
(before/after)
Woman interview
Lumala et al, 201713 Two phases, retrospectiveMedical doctorFacility staffPPH and severe pre-eclampsia, eclampsiaAll in-patient cases in the study period, not referred and not receiving hydralazine or magnesium sulfate from the referring unit238 (125 before, 133 after)No
Mgaya et al,  201714 Two phases, retrospectiveTrained postnatal ward nurses, (a consultant, a specialist and a midwife were also available for consultation)Facility staff
(AN, L, MO, MW, P)
Obstructed labourAll cases of obstructed labour with a single fetus in cephalic presentation and no other severe medical conditions or PROM510 (260 before, 250 after)Yes
Kayiga et al, 201615 Two phases, prospectiveNRFacility staff
(MO, MW, M)
Obstructed labourAll cases occurring in the study period360 (180 before, 180 after)Yes
Mohd Azri et al,  201516 First phase retrospective, second regular prospectiveNRFacility staff
(members of the obstetric department)
EclampsiaAll cases occurring in the study period51 (42 before, nine after)No
Gebrehiwot et al, 201417 ProspectiveFacility staff (MO, MW and other hospital staff+focal person)Facility staffAll NM+MDAll cases occurring in the study period2568No
Baltag et al, 201218 ProspectiveFacility staff involved in case management (MO, MD+occasionally L, T, PHC)Facility staff involved in case management (MO, MD+occasionally L, T, PHC)NMNot predefined criteria, cases were chosen by director30 approx (one case per month in each hospital)Yes
Kidanto et al, 201219 First phase retrospective, second prospectiveOne senior doctorFacility staffEclampsia and pre-eclampsiaAll cases occurring in the study period477 (389 before, 88 after)No
Sukhanberdiyev et al, 201120 and 
Hodorogea, 201021
ProspectiveFacility staffFacility staffPPH and severe pre-eclampsiaNRnot more than 10 in each hospital each yearYes
Van den Akker et al, 201122 Prospective every 2–3 weeksFacility staff, occasionally external obs gynFacility staffInfection, PPH, uterine rupture, preeclampsia, others)+MDAll cases occurring in the study period45 (24 deaths; 21 SOC)No
Bailey et al, 201023 First phase retrospective, than regular prospectiveFacility staff
(MO, N, M)
Facility staff
(MO, N, M)
Severe preeclampsia, postpartum infection, prolonged/obstructed labour, PPH, organisation of emergency serviceAll cases occurring in the study period558 (312 before, 246 after)No
Van den Akker et al, 200924 Prospective every 2–3 weeks for 3 monthsFacility staff
(M,MA, MO, MW,N);
Two external obstetricians in the second phase
Facility staff
(MO, N, M)
Uterine ruptureCases that appeared to be of particular educational value to the PI or any other hospital staff35No
Hunyinbo et al,  200825 Two phases, prospectiveStudy investigator/sFacility staff
(M,MA, MO, N,P, L)
PPH, uterine rupture, eclampsia, obstructed labour, sepsisAll cases occurring in the study period130 (65 before, 65 after)No
Kongnyuy et al,  200826 Two phases, prospectiveFacility staff (AN,M,MO,MW, L,T)Facility staff
(quality improvement team)
PPH, obstructed labour, sepsis, Preeclampsia/eclampsia, neonatal care, CS, women-friendly care+MDNRNRNo
Kongnyuy et al,  200827 Two phases, retrospectiveDistrict team (N, MW, CO,AN,T)Hospital staff (quality improvement team)Pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, PPH, prolonged/obstructed labour, retained placenta, sepsis, complications of abortion, ectopic pregnancyAll cases occurring in the study period122 (60 before, 62 after)No
Weeks et al, 200528 First phase retrospective, second prospectiveFacility staff
(including low grade staff)
Facility staffSevere pre-eclampsiaAll cases occurring in the study period86 (43 before, 43 after)No
Wagaarachchi et al, 200129 First phase retrospective, second prospectiveNon-medical assistants (10% of cases validated by independent re-review)Facility staff
(M,MO, M+all relevant staff)
PPH, eclampsia, infection, obstructed labour, uterine ruptureAll cases occurring in the study period889 (551 before, 338 after)No
  • AN, anaesthetist of anaesthetic technician, CO, clinical officer; CS, caesarean section; L, laboratory staff; M, manager; MA, medical assistant; MD, maternal deaths; MO, medical officer MW, midwife; N, nurse; NM, near miss, NR, not reported; P, pharmacy; PHC, primary healthcare staff; PI, principal investigator; PPH, postpartum haemorrhage; PROM, premature rupture of membranes; SOC, all severe obstetric cases; T, technician.