Table 1

Summary statistics of cohort characteristics and regression analysis results of total cost per cUTI episode

N (%)Univariate analysis‡ (95% CI)Multivariate analysisMultivariate analysis
Mean (SD)†Full model§ (95% CI)Reduced model¶(95% CI)
Demographics
 Age65.7 (18.66)†19.77 (−7.5 to 47)11.76 (−3.5 to 27)
 Female371 (58)−796.06 (−1872.5 to 280.4)17.59 (−582.8 to 618)
Type of admission
 Urgent (vs elective)585 (91)458.91 (−775.4 to 1693.2)937.87** (44.8 to 1830.9)991.32** (84.6 to 1898)
 From home (vs other facility)549 (85)−677.89 (−2429.6 to 1073.8)−577.62 (−1672.4 to 517.1)
Infection source (vs catheterisation)
 Pyelonephritis171 (27)−1673.18*** (−2819.3 to −527)−1802.63*** (−2812.8 to − 792.4)−1891.57*** (−2864.4 to −918.7)
 Other source344 (53)−821.88 (−1946.1 to 302.3)−709.83 (−1672.3 to 252.6)−760.95* (−1690.3 to 168.4)
Infection severity (vs other)
 Septic shock/severe sepsis100 (16)2415.49*** (1050.8 to 3780.2)1671.77*** (437.9 to 2905.6)1587.57** (280.7 to 2894.5)
Charlson comorbidity index2.4 (2.39)†324.34*** (116.8 to 531.9)230.85** (28.1 to 433.6)263.48*** (53.9 to 473.1)
Episode number1.04 (0.24)†1394.33*** (363.8 to 2424.8)355.91 (−522 to 1233.9)
Mortality 30 days (yes vs no)29 (5)571.66 (−2511.2 to 3654.5)−934.75 (−3510.7 to 1641.2)
Multidrug resistant (yes vs no)166 (26)626.99 (−421.5 to 1675.5)475.92 (−221.6 to 1173.4)581.41* (−98 to 1260.8)
Country (vs Turkey)
 Greece65 (10)−597.99 (−2692.5 to 1496.5)−1503.81 (−3933.1 to 925.5)−1263.11 (−3782.8 to 1256.6)
 Hungary49 (8)−1734.5** (−3216.4 to −252.6)−2757.06*** (−4101.8 to −1412.3)−2768.68*** (−4278.8 to −1258.5)
 Israel170 (26)−3612.37*** (−4659.1 to −2565.7)−4242.55*** (−5395.7 to −3089.4)−4007.09***(−5426.5 to −2587.7)
 Italy36 (6)−319.91 (−1648.8 to 1008.9)−1065.03* (−2358.1 to 228)−930.92 (−2501 to 639.2)
 Romania107 (17)−2389.75*** (−3438.9 to −1340.6)−2024.15*** (−3149.8 to −898.5)−1931.49*** (−3301.5 to −561.5)
 Spain126 (20)−819.22 (−1942.5 to 304.1)−1629.41*** (−2756.9 to −501.9)−1422.96** (−2812.8 to −33.1)
 Bulgaria31 (5)−2520.07*** (−4454.5 to −585.6)−2853.38*** (−4068.1 to −1638.7)−2841.09*** (−4354.9 to −1327.2)
 Pseudo-R2 N/AN/A0.1110.105
Sample size‡644636††
  • *P<0.1. **P<0.05. ***P<0.01.

  • †Summary statistics for continuous variables are shown as mean and SDs; for categorical variables we present total number of observations and percentage.

  • ‡Marginal effects of univariate regression models for each variable separately.

  • §Marginal effects of a multivariate model including all the covariates.

  • ¶Marginal effect of a reduced multivariate model including only significant variables.

  • ††There are eight cases with missing data on mortality at 30 days. Therefore, the sample used in the regression analyses includes 636 cases out of the 644 cases for whom data on cost per case was available.

  • cUTI, complicated urinary tract infection; N/A, not applicable.