Table 1

Participant characteristics (main study n=1546, pilot study n=143)

Pilot study
n/N* (%)
Main study
n/N* (%)
Mean age (SD)74 (10)71 (12)
Age (years)
 ≤503 (2)79 (5)
 51–609 (6)196 (13)
 61–7027 (19)420 (27)
 71–8067 (47)510 (33)
 81–9033 (23)315 (20)
 ≥904 (3)26 (2)
Gender
 Male65 (45)763 (49)
Number of comorbidities
 3109 (76)1234 (80)
 423 (16)277 (18)
 510 (7)31 (2)
 61 (<1)4 (<1)
Comorbidities*
 Cardiovascular disease138 (97)1445 (97)
 Stroke/Transient ischaemic attack35 (25)527 (34)
 Diabetes63 (44)811 (52)
 Chronic kidney disease83 (58)464 (30)
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma58 (41)770 (50)
 Epilepsy6 (4)76 (5)
 Atrial fibrillation46 (32)529 (34)
 Severe mental health problems†2 (1)66 (4)
 Depression26 (18)560 (36)
 Dementia6 (4)60 (4)
 Learning disability3 (2)14 (1)
 Rheumatoid arthritis9 (6)103 (7)
 Heart failure14 (10)157 (10)
Ethnicity
 White British135/136 (99)1502/1519 (99)
Age left full-time education (years)
 ≤1422 (15)154/1541 (10)
 15 or 1674 (52)907/1541 (59)
 17 or 1825 (17)222/1541 (14)
 ≥1922 (15)258/1541 (17)
Employment status
 Fully retired from work113/139 (81)1044/1501 (70)
Deprivation score quartile‡
 England
  Lower quartile99/143 (69)445/1079 (41)
  Middle lower quartile44/143 (31)304/1079 (28)
  Middle upper quartile0196/1079 (18)
  Upper quartile0134/1079 (12)
 Scotland
  Lower quartile105/467 (22)
  Middle lower quartile46/467 (10)
  Middle upper quartile156/467 (33)
  Upper quartile160/467 (34)
Baseline scores of outcome measures
 Mean HCTD score§ (SD, N)1.14 (1.7, 143)
 Mean self-reported disease burden score¶(SD, N)19 (12.4, 1458)
 Mean number of self-reported conditions** (SD, N)8 (3.2, 1543)
 Mean quality of life score†† (SD, N)0.6 (0.3, 1542)
 Mean self-rated health score‡‡ (SD, N)2 (0.8, 1523)
 Mean patient- centred health score§§(SD, N)2.5 (1.0, 1232)
  • *For characteristics where there are no missing data, n is shown; for characteristics with missing data n/N is shown.

  • †Including schizophrenia and psychotic illness.

  • ‡Individual Index of Multiple Deprivation score, 2010, for England, and Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation score, 2012, for Scotland, based on participants’ postcodes. The lower quartile is the least deprived and the upper quartile is the most deprived.

  • §Calculation of global HCTD score: sum of scores where each question was scored 0 (no difficulty), 1 (some difficulty) or 2 (a lot of difficulty). Minimum score 0, maximum score 16. Missing data were scored 0 (not difficult), as suggested by the HCTD authors.6

  • ¶Sum of the weighted scores (each scored 1–5) from the Bayliss scale.12 Responses were excluded if participants ticked that they had a condition but did not score how much the condition limited their daily activity, or if they gave a score without ticking that they had the condition.

  • **Number of self-reported conditions from a list of 27 conditions itemised in the Bayliss scale.

  • ††EuroQol five dimensions, five level questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) score.11

  • ‡‡Single question: ‘In general, would you say your health is poor (1), fair (2), good (3), very good (4) or excellent (5)?’

  • §§Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care score.13

  • HCTD, Healthcare Task Difficulty.