Table 1

Baseline demographic characteristics

(A) Patient characteristics
Intervention n=25 mean (SD) or n (%)Control n=25 mean (SD) or n (%)
Gender: male9 (36)14 (56)
Age (years)71.8 (9.9)76.0 (6.6)
BMI (kg2/m)32.1 (6.3)32.2 (5.3)
Ethnic group: white25 (100)25 (100)
Relationship status:
 Single4 (16)2 (8)
 Married14 (56)8 (32)
 Divorced/civil1 (4)3 (12)
 Partnership dissolved/widowed6 (24)12 (48)
Domestic residence:
 Live alone9 (36)14 (56)
 Spouse/partner only14 (56)8 (32)
 Spouse/partner and child > 0 (0)2 (8)
 18 years other adult family members only2 (8)1 (4)
Smoking status
 Never smoked2 (8)2 (8)
 Ex-smoker15 (60)14 (56)
 Current smoker8 (32)9 (36)
NYHA status
  Class I1 (4)1 (4)
 Class II15 (60)16 (64)
  Class III9 (36)8 (32)
  Class IV0 (0)0 (0)
Cause of heart failure*
 Ischaemic8 (32)16 (64)
  Non-ischaemic16 (64)8 (32)
  Unknown1 (4)1 (4)
Number of comorbidities
 07 (28)12 (48)
 115 (60)6 (24)
 23 (12)4 (16)
 302 (8)
 401 (4)
Previous myocardial infarction4 (16)5 (20)
Previous atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter6 (24)13 (52)
Hypertension18 (72)14 (56)
Diabetes mellitus9 (36)6 (24)
Chronic renal impairment3 (13)10 (40)
Time since diagnosis of heart failure (years)
 <16 (24)4 (16)
 1 to 27 (28)7 (28)
 >212 (48)15 (60)
Medication
 β-blocker18 (72)13 (52)
  Angiotensin 2 receptor antagonist7 (28)7 (28)
 ACE inhibitor11 (44)14 (56)
Main activity:
 In employment or self-employment0 (0)1 (4)
 Retired22 (88)24 (96)
 Unemployed2 (8)0 (0)
 Other1 (4)0 (0)
Education
 Postschool7 (28)7 (28)
 Degree5 (20)5 (20)
Pro-BNP levels
 ≤2000 pg/mL23 (92)22 (88)
 >2000 pg/mL2 (8)3 (12)