Table 4

Long-term cost-effectiveness analysis: base case results using probabilistic sensitivity analysis

Mean lifetime discounted costs per person
 Intervention costs
  Insulin and MDI consumables£12 215£5476−£6740
  Diabetes-related contacts£5023£6289£1266
  Insulin pumps and pump consumables£2228£28 967£26 739
  DAFNE course£363£392£29
 Subtotal intervention costs£19 829£41 124£21 295
 Adverse event costs
  Severe hypoglycaemia£133£41−£92
  Diabetic ketoacidosis£1161£882−£279
 Subtotal cost of adverse events£1294£922−£371
 Long-term complication costs
  Nephropathy£40 786£38 853−£1933
  Retinopathy+macular oedema£6365£6263−£102
  Myocardial infarction£1838£1844£6
  Heart failure£607£609£2
 Total cost of long-term complications£52 841£50 771−£2070
 Total costs£73 964£92 817£18 853
(95% CI £6175 to £31 645)
Mean undiscounted life years per person
  Total life years28.318128.79990.3790
(95% CI −2.7392 to 3.3403)
Mean discounted QALYs per person
  QALYs lived
  (excluding decrements due to complications)
  QALYs lost due to adverse events
  Severe hypoglycaemia−0.0014−0.00040.0009
  Diabetic ketoacidosis−0.0075−0.00570.0018
 Subtotal QALYs due to adverse events−0.0088−0.00610.0027
 QALYs lost due to complications
  Retinopathy+macular oedema−0.3316−0.32930.0022
  Myocardial infarction−0.0528−0.0532−0.0004
  Heart failure−0.0385−0.0387−0.0002
 Subtotal QALYs lost due to complications−1.0271−1.01200.0152
 Total QALYs12.878513.01110.1326
(95% CI −0.7087 to 0.9623)
 Total mean discounted costs per person£80 471£99 337£18 853
(95% CI £6175 to £31 645)
 Total mean undiscounted life years per person28.318128.79990.3790
(95% CI −2.7392 to 3.3403)
 Total mean discounted QALYs per person12.878513.01110.1326
(95% CI −0.7087 to 0.9623)
 ICER (£/QALY gained)£142 195
 Probability that pump+DAFNE is cost-effective at a threshold of £20 000 per QALY gained14.0%
  • DAFNE, Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating; ICER, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio; MDI, multiple daily injections; pump, insulin pumps; QALY, quality-adjusted life year.