Table 1

Summary of study populations

StudyDesignLocationNumber of
participants
Age, mean (SD)Sex (%)Ethnicity (%)ConditionHomelessness definition
Pilote et al 41 RCTUSA244
I1: 83
I2: 82
C: 79
I1: median 40
I2: median 39
C: median 40
I1: M (71%)
I2: M (67%)
C: M (66%)
African-American (I1: 48%, I2: 57%, C: 54%)
White (I1: 33%, I2: 27%, C: 27%)
Hispanic (I1: 16%, I2: 11%, C: 13%)
Latent TBHomeless: not further defined
Tulsky et al 30 RCTUSA118
I1: 43
I2: 37
C: 38
Median 37M (89%)African-American (52%)
White (21%)
Hispanic (27%)
Latent TBHomeless or marginally housed
Tulsky et al 29 RCTUSA141
I: 72
C: 69
Median 41 (range 21–79)M (85%)African-American (47%)
White (32%)
Other (20%)
Latent TBHomeless or marginally housed
Samet et al 47 RCTUSA151 (34 homeless)
I: 19
C: 15
Median 44 (range 26–60)M (82%)n/aHIV with alcohol problemsHomeless: not further defined
Ciaranello et al 32 Quasi-experimentalUSASix transitional housing facilities
I:219 sampled
C: 50 sampled
I: 41.6 (9.6)
C: 41.3 (10.4)
I: M (81%)
C: M (44%)
n/aVarious* ‘Formerly homeless’ residents of transitional housing
Nyamathi et al 37
Nyamathi et al 38
Schumann et al 39
Nyamathi et al 40
RCTUSA520
I: 279
C: 241
41.5 (8.5)M (79.6%)African-American (81%)
White (7.3%)
Hispanic (9.4%)
Other (2.3%)
Latent TBSleeping in homeless shelters
Tsai et al 43
Tsai et al 44
Grelotti et al 45
RCTUSA137
I: 66
C: 71
I: median 44 (IQR: 37–53)
C: median 42 (IQR: 37–79)
I: M (91%)
C: M (89%)
I: Caucasian (48%)
C: Caucasian (51%)
HIV with comorbid depression‘Homeless or marginally housed’
Savage et al 42 Randomised
pilot/feasibility
USA9
I: 6
C: 3
n/an/an/aType 2 diabetesLiving without shelter or adequate accommodation
Tyler et al 46 Randomised
quasi-experimental
USA107 (hepatitis C positive subset)
I: 46
C: 61
Males: 44 (7.1)
Females: 45.3 (8.9)
M (79%)African-American (63%)
White (17%)
Latino (18%)
Hepatitis CHomeless: not further specified
O’Toole et al 33 RCTUSA185
I1: 39
I2: 40
I1+2: 44
C: 62
48.6 (10.8)M (94%)‘Minority population’ (43%)Various†‘Lacking fixed, regular and adequate night-time residence’
Hewett et al 31 RCTUK410I: 41.6 (12.1)
C: 42.5 (11.3)
I: M (81.6%)
C: M (81.4%)
N.S.
Nationality:
UK: I (69.4%), C (72.5%)
European Union: I (22.3%), C (17.6%)
Other: I (8.3%) C (9.8%)
Various‡No fixed residence on hospital discharge
  • *Included hypertension, otherwise not fully specified.

  • †Asthma, COPD, hepatitis, cirrhosis, diabetes, hypertension and arthritis.

  • ‡Categorised by organ system (included liver, pulmonary, musculoskeletal, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, endocrine, skin, gastrointestinal and haematological pathology). Causes for hospital attendance also categorised by aetiology, 35% related to cardiovascular disease and 15% to metabolic conditions.

  • C, Comparator group; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; I, Intervention group; M, male; RCT, randomised controlled trial; TB, tuberculosis.