Gamma distribution
DisutilitySE Alpha Beta Source
Complications or covariates
  Female with type 1 diabetes and no complications0.02360.0088.700.003Peasgood et al 45*
Adverse events‡
  Severe hypoglycaemia−0.002−0.00210.002Peasgood et al 45
 Diabetic ketoacidosis−0.0091−0.010.830.01Peasgood et al 45*
  Microalbuminuria−0.0170.012.890.01Coffey et al 46
  ESRD−0.0780.02690.01Coffey et al 46
Neuropathy§ (applied to the history of events)
  Clinical neuropathy−0.0550.0130.250.002Coffey et al 46
  Clinically confirmed neuropathy−0.0550.0130.250.002Coffey et al 46
  Diabetic foot syndrome−0.1042−0.1190.770.14Peasgood et al 45
  PAD with amputation−0.1172−0.0554.540.03Peasgood et al 45*
Retinopathy§ (applied to the history of events)
  Background retinopathy−0.0544−0.0235.590.01Peasgood et al 45
  Proliferative retinopathy−0.0288−0.0261.230.02Peasgood et al 45
  Blindness−0.2080.0132560.001Coffey et al 46
Cardiovascular§ (applied to the history of events)
  MI (first year)−0.0650.034.690.01Alva et al 47
  MI (subsequent years)−0.0570.033.610.02Alva et al 47
  Heart failure−0.1010.0329.960.010Alva et al 47
  Stroke−0.1650.03522.220.007Alva et al 47
  Angina−0.090.018250.004Clarke et al 48
  • *A parameter value was not available in the author’s preferred statistical model.

  • †Value is presented in table 5 as ischaemic heart disease.

  • ‡These disutilites are applied transiently to the number of these events in each year.

  • §These disutilites are applied to the history of ever having had one of these events.

  • ESRD, end-stage renal disease; MI, myocardial infarction; PAD, peripheral arterial disease.